"member of a vigilance committee," 1856, American English, from Spanish vigilante, literally "watchman," from Latin vigilantem (nominative vigilans) "watchful, anxious, careful," from vigil "watchful, awake" (from PIE root *weg- "to be strong, be lively"). Vigilant man in same sense is attested from 1824 in a Missouri context. Vigilance committees kept informal rough order on the U.S. frontier or in other places where official authority was imperfect.
late 14c., casuel, "subject to or produced by chance," from Old French casuel (15c.), from Late Latin casualis "by chance," from Latin casus "chance, occasion, opportunity; accident, event" (see case (n.1)).
Of persons, in the sense of "not to be depended on, unmethodical," it is attested from 1883 (from the notion of "without regularity," hence "uncertain, unpredictable"); the meaning "showing lack of interest" is from 1916. Of clothes, "informal," from 1891. Related: Casually.
1630s, "authoritative sanction," from Latin fiat "let it be done" (used in the opening of Medieval Latin proclamations and commands), third person singular present subjunctive of fieri "be done, become, come into existence" (from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow"), used as passive of facere "to make, do." Meaning "a decree, command, order" is from 1750. In English the word also sometimes is a reference to fiat lux "let there be light" in Genesis i.3.
Dixitque Deus: Fiat lux. Et facta est lux. [Vulgate]
c. 1300, apreven, approven, "to demonstrate, prove," from Old French aprover (Modern French approuver) "approve, agree to," from Latin approbare "to assent to as good, regard as good," from ad "to" (see ad-) + probare "to try, test something (to find if it is good)," from probus "honest, genuine" (see prove).
The meaning was extended by late 14c. to "regard or assent to (something) as good or superior; commend; sanction, endorse, confirm formally," especially in reference to the actions of authorities, parliaments, etc. Related: Approved; approving.
late 14c., auctorisen, autorisen, "give formal approval or sanction to," also "confirm as authentic or true; regard (a book) as correct or trustworthy," from Old French autoriser, auctoriser "authorize, give authority to" (12c.) and directly from Medieval Latin auctorizare, from auctor (see author (n.)).
The meaning "give authority or legal power to" is from mid-15c. The modern spelling from late 16c. Related: Authorized; authorizing. Authorized Version as a popular name for the 1611 ("King James") English Bible is by 1811.
mid-13c., confirmyn, confermen "to ratify, sanction, make valid by a legal act," from Old French confermer (13c., Modern French confirmer) "strengthen, establish, consolidate; affirm by proof or evidence; anoint (a king)," from Latin confirmare "make firm, strengthen, establish," from assimilated form of com"together," but here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + firmare "to strengthen," from firmus "strong, steadfast" (from suffixed form of PIE root *dher- "to hold firmly, support").
From mid-14c. as "make firm or more firm, add strength to;" late 14c. as "make certain or sure, give an assurance of truth, verify." Related: Confirmative; confirmatory.
"idler, person who loafs," 1830, of uncertain origin, often regarded as a shortened variant of land loper (1795), a partial loan-translation of German Landläufer "vagabond," from Land "land" + Läufer "runner," from laufen "to run" (see leap (v.)). But OED finds this connection "not very probable." As a type of shoe for informal occasions, 1937. Related: Loafers. By coincidence Old English had hlaf-aeta "household servant," literally "loaf-eater;" one who eats the bread of his master, suggesting the Anglo-Saxons might have still felt the etymological sense of lord as "loaf-guard."
late 14c., seintefien "to consecrate, set apart for sacred use;" c. 1400, "to render holy or legitimate by religious sanction;" from Old French saintefier "sanctify" (12c., Modern French sanctifier), from Late Latin sanctificare "to make holy," from sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)) + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
The form was altered in English c. 1400 to conform to Latin. From 1520s (Tyndale) as "to free from sin." The transferred sense of "to render worthy of respect" is from c. 1600. Related: Sanctified; sanctifying.
1857, "to forgive or pardon" (something wrong), especially by implication, from Latin condonare "to give up, remit, permit," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + donare "give as a gift," from donum "gift" (from PIE root *do- "to give").
It is attested from 1620s, but only as a dictionary word. In real-world use originally a legal term in the Matrimonial Causes Act, which made divorce a civil matter in Britain (see condonation). General sense of "tolerate, sanction" is by 1962. Related: Condoned; condoning.
"a small jump, a leap on one foot," c. 1500, from hop (v.). Slang sense of "informal dancing party" is from 1731 (defined by Johnson as "a place where meaner people dance"). Meaning "short flight on an aircraft" is from 1909. Hop, skip, and jump (n.) is recorded from 1760 (hop, step, and jump from 1719).
This word [hop] has always been used here as in England as a familiar term for dance; but of late years it has been employed among us in a technical sense, to denote a dance where there is less display and ceremony than at regular balls. [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]