c. 1400, "act of saluting, respectful gesture of greeting, salutation," from salute (v.). The older form was salu (c. 1200), from Old French salu and directly from Latin salus. The military sense of "ceremonial compliment" is from 1690s; specifically of the hand-to-cap gesture by an inferior to a superior from 1832.
early 14c., "deterioration, degeneration, a sinking into an impaired or inferior condition," from Old French declin, from decliner "to sink, decline, degenerate" (see decline (v.)). Meaning "the time of life when physical and mental powers are failing" is short for decline of life (by 1711).
"writ from superior to inferior courts seeking the records of a case," legal Latin, "to be certified, to be informed or shown," a word figuring in the opening phrase of such writs; passive present infinitive of certorare "to certify, inform," from certior, comparative of certus "sure" (see certain).
Italian vegetable soup, 1871, from Italian minestrone, with augmentative suffix -one + minestra "soup, pottage," literally "that which is served," from minestrare "to serve, to prepare (soup, etc.)," from Latin ministrare "to serve, attend, wait upon," from minister "inferior, servant, priest's assistant" (see minister (n.)).
late 14c., "degrade socially" (for marrying below rank or without proper ceremony), from Anglo-French and Old French desparagier (Modern French déparager) "reduce in rank, degrade, devalue, depreciate," originally "to marry unequally, marry to one of inferior condition or rank," and thus, by extension, to bring on oneself or one's family the disgrace or dishonor involved in this, from des- "away" (see dis-) + parage "rank, lineage" (see peer (n.)).
Also from late 14c. as "injure or dishonor by a comparison," especially by treating as equal or inferior to what is of less dignity, importance, or value. Sense of "belittle, undervalue, criticize or censure unjustly" is by 1530s. Related: Disparaged; disparaging; disparagingly.
"a jaw, a jawbone," 1670s, from Latin maxilla "upper jaw," diminutive of mala "jaw, cheekbone." "Maxilla stands to mala as axilla, 'armpit,' stands to ala 'wing'" [Klein]. Especially a bone of the upper jaw (maxilla superior) as distinguished from the mandible or lower jaw (maxilla inferior). Related: Maxillar; maxilliform.
late 14c., "obedience, submission; servitude, bondage; lordship, control," from Anglo-French subjectioun, Old French subjection "submission; subjugation; inferior condition; captivity" (12c., Modern French sujétion), from Latin subjectionem (nominative subjectio) "a putting under," noun of action from past participle stem of subicere (see subject (n.)).
mid-14c., ministracioun, "the action of ministering or serving, the rendering of personal service or aid," from Old French ministration or directly from Latin ministrationem (nominative ministratio), noun of action from past-participle stem of ministrare "to serve, attend, wait upon," from minister "inferior, servant, priest's assistant" (see minister (n.)).
also buck-eye, "American horse-chestnut tree," 1763, said to be so called from resemblance of the nut to a stag's eye (see buck (n.1) + eye (n.)). Meaning "native of Ohio" is attested since 1822, from the great number of such trees growing there. Used figuratively in early 20c. of anything cheap or inferior.
late 14c., in astronomy, "imaginary point of the celestial sphere vertically opposite to the zenith of the sun; the inferior pole of the horizon," from Medieval Latin nadir, from Arabic nazir "opposite to," in nazir as-samt, literally "opposite direction," from nazir "opposite" + as-samt "road, path" (see zenith). Transferred sense of "lowest point" of anything is recorded by 1793.