Micawber (n.)

as a type of a childishly impractical man living in optimistic fantasy, by 1852, from the character of Wilkins Micawber in Dickens' "David Copperfield" (1850).

"I am at present, my dear Copperfield, engaged in the sale of corn upon commission. It is not an avocation of a remunerative description — in other words it does not pay — and some temporary embarrassments of a pecuniary nature have been the consequence. I am however delighted to add that I have now an immediate prospect of something turning up ...."
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masc. proper name, from Latin dexter "on the right hand" (from PIE root *deks- "right, opposite of left; south"). See dexter (adj.) and compare also Benjamin.

The English surname, however, is literally "a dyer," attested from c. 1300, from a variant of deie "dye" (see dye (n.)) + feminine agent suffix -ster. Its immediate source is Old English degstre, from deagian "to dye." The parallel form in Middle English was deister "dyer" attested from c. 1300, from 13c. as a surname (Deyster, Dygestre).

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carp (n.)

type of freshwater fish, late 14c., from Old French carpe "carp" (13c.) and directly from Vulgar Latin *carpa (source also of Italian carpa, Spanish carpa), from a Germanic source (compare Middle Dutch carpe, Dutch karper, Old High German karpfo, German Karpfen "carp"); possibly the immediate source is Gothic *karpa. A Danube fish (hence the proposed East Germanic origin of its name), introduced in English ponds 14c. Lithuanian karpis, Russian karp are Germanic loan words.

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word-forming element used in science for the carbon-nitrogen compound radical, from a Latinized form of Greek kyanos "dark blue" (see cyan).

The immediate source of its use in science is French cyanogène, the name given to the compound radical by Gay-Lussac. He called it that because it first had been obtained by heating the dye pigment powder known as Prussian blue (see Prussian).

The cyanogen radical was one of the first examples of a 'compound radical' and was of importance in the development of structural chemistry during the next forty years. [Flood, "Origins of Chemical Names"]  
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tautology (n.)

"repetition of the same word, or use of several words conveying the same idea, in the same immediate context; repetition of the same thing in different words; the useless repetition of the same idea or meaning," 1570s, from Late Latin tautologia "representation of the same thing in other words," from Greek tautologia, from tautologos "repeating what has been said," from tauto "the same" (contraction of to auto, with to "the" + auto, see auto-) + -logos "saying," related to legein "to say," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')." Related: Tautological.

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unison (n.)

1570s, "note having the same pitch as another; identity in pitch of two or more sounds; interval between tones of the same pitch," especially the interval of an octave, from French unisson "unison, accord of sound" (16c.) or directly from Medieval Latin unisonus "having one sound, sounding the same," from Late Latin unisonius "in immediate sequence in the scale, monotonous," from Latin uni- "one" (from PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique") + sonus "sound" (from PIE root *swen- "to sound"). Figurative sense of "harmonious agreement" is first attested 1640s.

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relativity (n.)

1834, "fact or condition of being relative, existence as an immediate object of the understanding or experience, existence only in relation to a thinking mind," (apparently coined by Coleridge, in "Notes on Waterland's Vindication of Christ's Divinity"), from relative (adj.) + -ity. In scientific use, connected to the theory of Albert Einstein (1879-1955) having to do with the dependence of observation on the relative motion of observer and object, published in 1905 (special theory of relativity) and 1915 (general theory of relativity), but the word was used in roughly this sense by J.C. Maxwell in 1876. An earlier noun in the sense of "state of being relative" was relativeness (1670s).

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affix (v.)

"fasten, join, attach," 1530s, from Medieval Latin affixare, frequentative of Latin affigere (past participle affixus) "fasten to, attach," from ad "to" (see ad-) + figere "to fasten" (from PIE root *dheigw- "to stick, fix").

According to OED first used by Scottish writers and thus perhaps the immediate source was French affixer, a temporarily re-Latinized spelling of Old French afichier (Modern French afficher), from a Medieval Latin variant of the Latin verb. The older form in English was affitch (Middle English afficchen, late 14c.), from Old French afichier. Related: Affixed; affixt; affixing.

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grateful (adj.)

1550s, "pleasing to the mind," also "full of gratitude, disposed to repay favors bestowed," from obsolete adjective grate "agreeable, pleasant," from Latin gratus "pleasing" (from suffixed form of PIE root *gwere- (2) "to favor"). "A most unusual formation" [Weekley]. A rare, irregular case of English using -ful to make an adjective from an adjective (the only other one I can find is direful "characterized by or fraught with something dreadful," 1580s). Related: Gratefully (1540s); gratefulness.

Grateful often expresses the feeling and the readiness to manifest the feeling by acts, even a long time after the rendering of the favor; thankful refers rather to the immediate acknowledgment of the favor by words. [Century Dictionary]
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recession (n.)

1640s, "act of receding, a going back," from French récession "a going backward, a withdrawing," and directly from Latin recessionem (nominative recessio) "a going back," noun of action from past-participle stem of recedere "to go back, fall back; withdraw, depart, retire," from re- "back" (see re-) + cedere "to go" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield").

The sense of "temporary decline in economic activity" was a fall-of-1929 coinage, probably a noun of action from recess (v.):

The material prosperity of the United States is too firmly based, in our opinion, for a revival in industrial activity — even if we have to face an immediate recession of some magnitude — to be long delayed. [Economist, Nov. 2, 1929]

Ayto ("20th Century Words") notes, "There was more than a hint of euphemism in the coining of this term."

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