"person; state, condition," Old English had "person, individual, character, individuality; condition, state, nature; sex, race, family, tribe;" see -hood. Obsolete after 14c. Cognate with Old Saxon hed "condition, rank, Old Norse heiðr "honor, dignity," Old High German heit, Gothic haidus "way, manner."
mid-15c., "neighborly conduct, mutual friendliness," from neighbor (n.) + -hood. Modern sense of "community of people who live close together" is recorded by 1620s. Phrase in the neighborhood of meaning "near, somewhere about" is by 1857, American English. The Old English word for "neighborhood" was neahdæl. Middle English had neighborship (early 14c.), "neighborliness; neighborly acts," later "state of being neighbors."
1610s, alteration of livelode "means of keeping alive" (c. 1300), from Old English liflad "course of life," from lif "life" (see life) + lad "way, course" (see load (n.)). Similar formation in Old High German libleita "provisions." Spelling assimilated to words in -hood. Earlier livelihood was a different word, meaning "liveliness," from lively.
word-forming element meaning "condition or state of," Middle English, from Old English -rede, from ræden "condition, rule, reckoning," a suffixed form of ræd "to advise, rule" (see rede). Common in Old English, less so in Middle English but still active in word-formation. It is analogous to -hood, which has replaced it in brotherhood, neighborhood, etc.; it survives in about 25 words.
late 14c., susterhede, "state of being or having a sister; sisterly relationship," also figurative; from sister + -hood. The meaning "a society of sisters" (usually a religious order) is from mid-15c.; the sense of "women having some common characteristic or calling" is by c. 1600. Sisternity, on the model of fraternity, also was used in 17c. for the "institution or convent society" sense; sistership was tried form this from 1840.
c. 1300, falshede, "deceitfulness," also "a lie; that which is false," from false + -hood. Formed on the same pattern are Old Frisian falschede, Dutch valschheid, German Falschheit, Swedish falskhet. Former noun forms in English, now extinct, included falsage "wrongdoing" (late 15c.), falsdom "deceitfulness, treachery; a lie" (c. 1300), fals-lek "falsehood" (early 14c.), falsshipe "deceitfulness, dishonesty" (c. 1200).
Middle English manhede, manhode, "state of being human" (early 13c.), from man (n.) + -hood. Sense of "manliness, qualities considered becoming to a man" (variously: "courageous behavior, bravery; courteous behavior, gentility; compassion, kindness") is from c. 1300. Meaning "state of being an adult male" is from late 14c.
Similar words in Old English also were less explicitly masculine: manscipe "humanity, courtesy," literally "man-ship;" mennisclicnes "state of man, humanity, humaneness, human nature" (compare mannish). The more purely "manly" word was werhad "male sex, virility, manhood" (see first element in werewolf).
1947 (the policy was officially begun 1948), "segregation of European from non-European people in South Africa," from Afrikaans apartheid (1929 in a South African socio-political context), literally "separateness," from Dutch apart "separate" (from French àpart; see apart) + suffix -heid, which is cognate with English -hood. The official English synonym was separate development (1955).
"Segregation" is such an active word that it suggests someone is trying to segregate someone else. So the word "apartheid" was introduced. Now it has such a stench in the nostrils of the world, they are referring to "autogenous development." [Alan Paton, New York Times, Oct. 24, 1960]