Etymology
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dependent (adj.)

also dependant, late 14c., "relying for existence on;" early 15c. as "contingent, related to some condition;" from Old French dependant, present-participle adjective from dependre "to hang down," from Latin dependere "to hang from, hang down; be dependent on, be derived," from de "from, down" (see de-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

For spelling, see dependant (n.). In some cases the English word is directly from Latin dependentem (nominative dependens), present participle of dependere. From early 15c. in the literal sense of "hanging down, pendent." From 1640s as "subordinate, under the control of or needing aid from an extraneous source." Dependent variable in mathematics is recorded from 1852.

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penchant (n.)

"strong inclination," 1670s, from French penchant, noun use of present participle of Old French pencher "to incline," from Vulgar Latin *pendicare, a frequentative formed from Latin pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

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droop (v.)

c. 1300, droupen, "to sink or hang down; be downcast or sad," from Old Norse drupa "to drop, sink, hang (the head)," related to Old English dropian "to drop" (see drop (v.)). Related: Drooped; drooping. As a noun, "act of drooping," from 1640s.

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painter (n.2)

mid-14c., "rope or chain that holds an anchor to a ship's side," probably from Old French peintor, ultimately from Latin pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Extended generally to "rope attached to the bow of a boat."

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pensive (adj.)

late 14c., pensif, "sad, sorrowful, melancholy;" also "engaged in serious thought, meditative, contemplative;" from Old French pensif "thoughtful, distracted, musing" (11c.), from penser "to think," from Latin pensare "weigh, consider," frequentative of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Meaning "expressing thoughtfulness with sadness" is from 1540s. Related: Pensively; pensiveness.

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expend (v.)

"to spend, pay out; to consume by use, spend in using," early 15c., expenden, from Latin expendere "pay out, weigh out money," from ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). For the financial sense of the Latin verb, see pound (n.1). Related: Expended; expending.

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impendent (adj.)

1590s, from Latin impendentem (nominative impendens) "impending," present participle of impendere "to hang over" (see impend). Related: Impendence.

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peso (n.)

"Spanish coin, the Spanish dollar," also a coin in various Spanish-American nations,  1550s, from Spanish peso, literally "a weight," from Medieval Latin pensum, properly past participle of Latin pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). For the financial sense of the Latin verb, see pound (n.1).

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encroach (v.)

late 14c., "acquire, get," from Old French encrochier "seize, fasten on, hang on (to), cling (to); hang up, suspend," literally "to catch with a hook," from en- "in" (see en- (1)) + croc "hook," from Old Norse krokr "hook" (see crook (n.)). Sense extended to "seize wrongfully" (c. 1400), then "trespass" (1530s). Related: Encroached; encroaches; encroaching.

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impend (v.)

"be about to happen" (usually of something unwanted), 1590s, from Latin impendere "to hang over;" figuratively "to be imminent, be near," from assimilated form of in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + pendere "to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Literal sense in English is by 1780. Related: Impended; impending.

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