Etymology
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franc (n.)

French coin, late 14c., frank, from French franc; a name said to have been given because Medieval Latin Francorum Rex, "King of the Franks" (see Frank), was inscribed on gold coins first made during the reign of Jean le Bon (1350-64). Used of different gold and silver coins over the years; as the name of an official monetary unit of France from 1795.

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goldfinch (n.)

Old English goldfinc; see gold (adj.) + finch. So called for its yellow wing markings. Compare German Goldfink.

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Krugerrand (n.)

also Kruger rand, 1967, South African gold coin (issued for investment purposes) bearing a portrait of Transvaal President Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (1825-1904); second element is rand, unit of decimal currency introduced in Republic of South Africa 1961, named for The Rand, gold-mining area in Transvaal, short for Witwatersrand (see rand).

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Ghana 

since 1957 the name of the former Gold Coast; from the name of a former tribal chieftain, whose name itself is a form of a royal title, hence, "king." Related: Ghanian.

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half-eagle (n.)

U.S. $5 gold coin minted from 1795 to 1929, authorized in the 1786 resolution for a new monetary system; see half + eagle in the coinage sense.

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karat (n.)

1854, spelling variant of carat (q.v.). In U.S., karat is used for "proportion of fine gold in an alloy" and carat for "measure of weight of a precious stone."

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titrate (v.)

1854, with -ate (2) + French titrer, from titre "standard, title," also "fineness of alloyed gold" (see title (n.)).

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purl (v.1)

"knit with inverted stitches," 1825; earlier "embroider with gold or silver thread" (1520s), probably from Middle English pirlyng "revolving, twisting," of unknown origin. The two senses usually are taken as one word, but even this is not certain. Klein suggests a source in Italian pirolare "to twirl," from pirolo "top." As a noun, from late 14c. as "bordering, frills;" 1530s as "twisted thread of gold and silver."

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basalt (n.)

type of volcanic rock, c. 1600, from Late Latin basaltes, a misspelling of Latin basanites "very hard stone," from Greek basanitēs "a species of slate used to test gold," from basanos "touchstone," also "a trial, examination, test whether anything be true," from Egyptian baban "slate," a stone which was used by the Egyptians as a touchstone of gold. According to Beekes, "It came to Greece via Lydia." In Pliny, basaniten by mistake became basalten, which is the origin of basalt.

Any hard, very dark rock would do as a touchstone; the assayer compared the streak left by the alleged gold with that of real gold or baser metals. From the noun in Greek came Greek basanizein "to be put to the test, be examined closely, be cross-examined, be put to torture." The word is not connected with salt. Related: Basaltic.

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guilder (n.)

Dutch gold coin, late 15c., probably from a mispronunciation of Middle Dutch gulden, literally "golden," in gulden (florijn) or some similar name for a golden coin (see golden).

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