Etymology
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seed-corn (n.)

"corn or grain set aside for seed for new crops," 1590s, from seed (n.) + corn (n.1).

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barleycorn (n.)
"barley," late 14c., from barley + corn (n.1). Perhaps to distinguish the barley plant or the grain from its products. In Britain and U.S., the grain is used mainly to prepare liquor, hence personification of malt liquor as John Barleycorn (1620) in popular ballads, and many now-obsolete figures of speech, such as to wear a barley cap (16c.) "to be drunk."
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cornflower (n.)

"any flower or plant growing in grain fields" (typically the common bluebottle), 1570s, from corn (n.1) + flower (n.).

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farrago (n.)

"hodgepodge, a confused mix," 1630s, from Latin farrago "medley, mixed fodder, mix of grains for animal feed," from far "grain" (see farina).

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grange (n.)
mid-13c. in surnames and place names; c. 1300 as "group of farms, small village," also "a granary, barn" (early 14c.), "outlying buildings of a monastic or other estate" (late 14c.), "small farm" (mid-15c.), and compare granger; from Anglo-French graunge, Old French grange "barn, granary; farmstead, farm house" (12c.), from Medieval Latin or Vulgar Latin granica "barn or shed for keeping grain," from Latin granum "grain," from PIE root *gre-no- "grain." Sense evolved to "outlying farm" (late 14c.), then "country house," especially of a gentleman farmer (1550s). Meaning "local lodge of the Patrons of Husbandry" (a U.S. farmers' cooperative and agricultural interest promotion organization) is from 1867.
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ear (n.2)
"grain part of corn," from Old English ear (West Saxon), æher (Northumbrian) "spike, ear of grain," from Proto-Germanic *akhuz (source also of Dutch aar, Old High German ehir, German Ähre, Old Norse ax, Gothic ahs "ear of corn"), from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce" (source of Latin acus "chaff, husk of corn," Greek akoste "barley").
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plywood (n.)

"board made of two or more thin layers of wood bonded together and arranged so that the grain of one runs at right angles to that of the next," 1907, from ply (n.) + wood (n.).

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smutty (adj.)
1590s, "soiled with smut" (of grain); 1660s, "indecent," from smut + -y (2). Related: Smuttily; smuttiness. Smutty-nosed in ornithology means "having black nostrils."
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corn (n.1)

"grain," Old English corn "single seed of a cereal plant; seeds of cereal plants generally; plants which produce corn when growing in the field," from Proto-Germanic *kurnam "small seed" (source also of Old Frisian and Old Saxon korn "grain," Middle Dutch coren, German Korn, Old Norse korn, Gothic kaurn), from PIE root *gre-no- "grain."

The sense of the Old English word was "grain with the seed still in" (as in barleycorn) rather than a particular plant. Locally understood to denote the leading crop of a district. It has been restricted to the indigenous "maize" in America (c. 1600, originally Indian corn, but the adjective was dropped), usually "wheat" in England, "oats" in Scotland and Ireland, while Korn means "rye" in parts of Germany.

Maize was introduced to China by 1550, it thrived where rice did not grow well and was a significant factor in the 18th century population boom there. Corn-starch is from 1850. Corn-silk is attested from 1852.

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farina (n.)

1707, "dust, powdery substance," from Latin farina "ground wheat, flour, meal," from far (genitive farris) "husked wheat, emmer; grain, flour," from Proto-Italic *fars "flour," from PIE *bhars-, with cognates in Old Irish bairgen "bread, loaf," Welsh bara "bread," Serbo-Croatian brašno "flour, food," Latvian bariba "food," Gothic barizeins "from barley," Old Norse barr "grain," Old English bere "barley;" according to de Vaan perhaps a loan-word from a non-IE language.

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