Etymology
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goes 

third person singular of go, Old English gaæs (Northumbrian), displacing alternative goeth (Old English gaeþ) except in archaic and liturgical use. Who goes there? as a sentry's challenge is from 1590s. Expression anything goes "there are no rules or limits" is from 1921; earlier everything goes (1879). That goes without saying (1878) translates French cela va sans dire.

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undergo (v.)

Old English undergan "obtain, get; undertake," from under + gan (see go (v.)). Compare similarly formed Middle Dutch ondergaen, Old High German untarkun, German untergehen, Danish undergaa. Sense of "submit to, endure" is attested from c. 1300. Meaning "to pass through" (an alteration, etc.) is attested from 1630s. Related: Undergone; underwent.

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woebegone (adj.)

c. 1300, in expressions such as me is wo bigone "woe has beset me," from woe + begon, past participle of Middle English bego "to beset, surround, overwhelm," from Old English began "go over, traverse; inhabit, occupy; encompass, surround" (see be- + go (v.)). The verb is now obsolete, and its only survival is the fossilized past participle in this word.

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ago (adj.)

"gone, gone by; gone away," early 14c., a shortened form of agon "departed, passed away," past participle of a now-obsolete verb ago, agon "to go, proceed, go forth, pass away, come to an end," from Old English agan. This was formed from a- (1) "away" (perhaps here used as an intensive prefix) + gan "to go" (see go (v.)).

As an adverb, "in past times" (as in long ago) from late 14c. The form agone is now obsolete except as a dialectal variant.

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forego (v.)

"to go before," Old English foregan "to go before," from fore- + go (v.). Related: Foregoer, foregoing; foregone. Similar formation in Dutch voorgaan, German vorgehen, Danish foregaa.

Phrase foregone conclusion echoes "Othello" [III.iii], but Shakespeare's sense was not necessarily the main modern one of "a decision already formed before the case is argued." Othello says it of Cassio's dream, and it is clear from the context that Othello means Cassio actually has been in bed with Desdemona before he allegedly dreamed it (the suspicion Iago is nourishing in him). In this case conclusion is probably meant in the sense of "final outcome," not that of "result of an examination."

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went (v.)

past tense of go; originally a past tense and past participle of wend (v.), as sent from send.

The past tense forms of wend were wende, wended, but variants wente, went developed from c. 1200 as part of a Middle English pattern in which the -d of the past tense past participle becomes -t after -t-, -p-, -s-, -f-, in some cases -l- and -n- (also compare keep/kept, leave/left, gird/girt, build/built, feel/felt, dwell/dwelt, Middle English kissen/kiste, etc.

Went began to replace older past tenses of go in Middle English. By c. 1500 they were fully employed in that function, and wend retained the past tense form wended

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gang (n.)

from Old English gang "a going, journey, way, passage," and Old Norse gangr "a group of men, a set," both from Proto-Germanic *gangaz (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Danish, Dutch, Old High German, German gang, Old Norse gangr, Gothic gagg "act of going"), of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE root *ghengh- "to step" (source also of Sanskrit jangha "shank," Avestan zanga- "ankle," Lithuanian žengiu "I stride"). Not considered to be related to go.

The sense evolution is probably via meaning "a set of articles that usually are taken together in going" (mid-14c.), especially a set of tools used on the same job. By 1620s this had been extended in nautical speech to mean "a company of workmen," and by 1630s the word was being used, with disapproving overtones, for "any band of persons traveling together," then "a criminal gang or company" (gang of thieves, gang of roughs, etc.). By 1855 gang was being used in the sense "group of criminal or mischievous boys in a city." In American English, especially of slaves working on plantations (1724). Also formerly used of animal herds or flocks (17c.-19c.). Gangway preserves the original sense of the word, as does gang-plank.

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gobo (n.)

"portable screen or wall to absorb sound or reflect light," 1930, American English, Hollywood movie set slang, of unknown origin, perhaps somehow from go-between.

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church-going (adj.)

"habitually attending church," 1540s, from the verbal phrase; go to church for "attend divine service in a religious building" is from late 12c. Late Old English had church-gang for "attendance at church." Related: Church-goer.

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in-going (adj.)

also ingoing, 1825, from in + going. Probably a modern formation unrelated to Middle English in-going (n.) "act of entering" (mid-14c.), from ingo "to go in, enter," from Old English ingan (past tense ineode), equivalent of German eingehen, Dutch ingaan.

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