"connoisseur," 1778 (in the plural cognoscenti), an Italian word in English, re-Latinized in Italian from earlier conoscente "connoisseur," literally "knowing man," from Latin cognoscentum (nominative cognoscens), present participle of cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," from assimilated form of com "together" (see co-) + gnoscere "to know" (from PIE root *gno- "to know").
1550s, "an act of jumping," from jump (v.). Figurative meaning "sudden abrupt rise" is from 1650s. Meaning "abrupt transition from one point to another" is from 1670s. Sense of "a parachute descent" is from 1922. Meaning "jazz music with a strong beat" first recorded 1937, in Count Basie's "One O'Clock Jump." Jump suit "one-piece coverall modeled on those worn by paratroopers and skydivers" is from 1948. To get a jump on "get ahead, get moving" is from 1910, perhaps a figurative use from the jump-spark that ignites an engine.
"cultural and geographical region of inland Eastern U.S.," 1880s, from the Appalachian Mountains, which are its core. Earlier Appalachia was proposed as a better name for "United States of America" by Washington Irving in 1839 (though he preferred Alleghenia) and he may get the credit for coinage of the word (see America).
c. 1600, "to live by one's wits like a needy adventurer," a word of uncertain origin (see shark (n.)); according to OED, at least partly a variant of shirk. The transitive meaning "get or obtain by sharking" is from 1610s. The verb meaning "to fish for or catch sharks" is attested by 1860 (implied in sharking (n.)). Related: Sharked.
"ineffectual or hapless person," 1905, nebbich, from Yiddish (used as a Yiddish word in American English from 1890s), from a Slavic source akin to Czech neboh "poor, unfortunate," literally "un-endowed," from Proto-Slavic *ne-bogu-, with negative prefix (see un- (1)) + from PIE root *bhag- "to share out, apportion; to get a share." Also as an adjective.
"inhalation of a marijuana cigarette or pipe smoke," 1968, U.S. slang, from earlier verb meaning "to smoke a marijuana cigarette" (1952), perhaps from Spanish tocar in sense of "touch, tap, hit" or "get a share or part." In 19c. the same word in British slang meant "small piece of poor-quality bread," but probably this is not related.