1803, "a romantic idea," from romantic + -ism. In literature, 1823, in a French context, in reference to a movement toward medieval forms (especially in reaction to classical ones), an association now more often confined to Romanesque. The movement began in German and spread to England and France. Generalized sense of "a tendency toward romantic ideas" is recorded by 1840.
"to make numb, deprive of sensation or power of movement," 1550s (implied in numbed), from numb (adj.). Related: Numbing.
"a movement in a circle," 1620s, from French circuite, from Medieval Latin circuitus (see circuitous) on model of gratuite, etc.