Etymology
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decontaminate (v.)

"remove the contamination from," 1936, from de- "do the opposite of" + contaminate (v.). Originally in reference to poison gas. Related: Decontaminated; decontaminating; decontamination.

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protostar (n.)

in astronomy, "contracting mass of gas considered as an early stage in the formation of a star," by 1951, from proto- + star (n.).

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fire-damp (n.)
"marsh gas," 1670s, from fire (n.) + damp (n.) "noxious vapor." Largely methane, it can spontaneously ignite when mixed with atmospheric air.
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Sarin (n.)

type of odorless nerve gas, 1945, from German, but the name is of unknown origin. Other phosphorous compounds known in Germany by the end of World War II were called Tabun, soman, Diglykol.

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lighter (n.2)
"person who lights," 1550s, agent noun from light (v.2). From 1851 of devices or instruments to lighting gas-jets or candles (originally often a simple twist of paper rolled into a tapering tube); from 1895 of mechanical cigarette lighters.
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refuel (v.)

also re-fuel, "supply again with fuel, refill with fuel," 1811, from re- "again" + fuel (v.). Originally in a spiritual sense; later of gas tanks, motor vehicles, etc. Related: Refueled; refuelling.

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ammonia (n.)

volatile alkali, colorless gas with a strong pungent smell, 1799, coined in scientific Latin 1782 by Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman as a name for the gas obtained from sal ammoniac, salt deposits containing ammonium chloride found near temple of Jupiter Ammon (from Egyptian God Amun) in Libya (see Ammon, and compare ammoniac). The shrine was ancient already in Augustus' day, and the salts were prepared "from the sands where the camels waited while their masters prayed for good omens" [Shipley], hence the mineral deposits. Also known as spirit of hartshorn and volatile alkali or animal alkali.

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condensation (n.)

c. 1600, "action or state of making or becoming more dense," from Late Latin condensationem (nominative condensatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin condensare "to make dense" (see condense). Meaning "conversion of a gas or vapor to a liquid form" is from 1610s.

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flatulent (adj.)

"affected by digestive gas," 1590s, from French flatulent (16c.), from Modern Latin flatulentus, from Latin flatus "a blowing, breathing, snorting; a breaking wind," past participle of flare "to blow, puff," from PIE root *bhle- "to blow."

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meter (v.)

"to measure by means of a meter," 1864 (in reference to gas), from meter (n.3). Meaning "install parking meters" is from 1957. In 15c.-16c. it meant "to compose verse, write in metrical verse" (from meter (n.1)), also "to measure." Related: Metered; metering.

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