Etymology
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galvanic (adj.)
1797; see galvanism + -ic. Perhaps from or based on French galvanique. Related: Galvanical.
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galling (adj.)
"irritating, offensive, extremely annoying," 1580s, figurative use of present participle of gall (v.).
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gallium (n.)
metalic element that melts in the hand, discovered by spectral lines in 1875 by French chemist Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1838-1912), who named it apparently in honor of his homeland (see Gallic), but it has been suggested that he also punned on his own name (compare Latin gallus "cock," for which see gallinaceous). With metallic element ending -ium.
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galvanized (adj.)

1820, "subject to galvanism," past-participle adjective from galvanize. As "coated with a metal by galvanism" from 1839, originally in galvanized iron.

Iron covered with zinc has been called galvanised iron, from the fact that we have two metals in different electrical conditions; the zinc, suffering chemical change, oxidising, and acting as a protecting agent to the iron. ["Hunt's Hand-Book to the Official Catalogues," 1851]
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galaxy (n.)

late 14c., from French galaxie or directly from Late Latin galaxias "the Milky Way" as a feature in the night sky (in classical Latin via lactea or circulus lacteus), from Greek galaxias (adj.), in galaxias kyklos, literally "milky circle," from gala (genitive galaktos) "milk" (from PIE root *g(a)lag- "milk").

The technical astronomical sense in reference to the discrete stellar aggregate including the sun and all visible stars emerged by 1848. Figurative sense of "brilliant assembly of persons" is from 1580s. Milky Way is a translation of Latin via lactea.

See yonder, lo, the Galaxyë Which men clepeth the Milky Wey, For hit is whyt. [Chaucer, "House of Fame"]

Originally ours was the only one known. Astronomers began to speculate by mid-19c. that some of the spiral nebulae they could see in telescopes were actually immense and immensely distant structures the size and shape of the Milky Way. But the matter was not settled in the affirmative until the 1920s.

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Galbraith 
surname, from Old Gaelic Gall-Bhreathnach "stranger-Briton," a name given to Britons settled among Gaels. Compare Galloway.
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gall (n.1)

"bile, liver secretion," Old English galla (Anglian), gealla (West Saxon) "gall, bile," from Proto-Germanic *gallon "bile" (source also of Old Norse gall "gall, bile; sour drink," Old Saxon galle, Old High German galla, German Galle), from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives denoting "green, yellow," and thus "bile, gall." Informal sense of "impudence, boldness" first recorded American English 1882; but meaning "embittered spirit, rancor" is from c. 1200, from the old medicine theory of humors.

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gallinivorous (adj.)
"chicken-eating," 1862, from Latin gallina "hen" (see gallinaceous) + -vorous "eating, devouring."
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gallinicide (n.)
"the killing of chickens," 1883, from Latin gallina "hen" (see gallinaceous) + -cide "a killing."
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