Etymology
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Waterloo (n.)
village near Brussels; the great battle there took place June 18, 1815; extended sense of "a final, crushing defeat" is first attested 1816 in letter of Lord Byron. The second element in the place name is from Flemish loo "sacred wood" (see lea (n.)).
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showdown (n.)
also show-down, 1873 in card-playing (especially poker) a slang term for the act of laying down the hands face-up, from show (v.) + down (adv.). Figurative sense of "final confrontation" is from 1904.
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latest (adj.)
c. 1200, "last, final," superlative of late. From 1590s as "most recent." As a noun, 1520s, "the last in order." Colloquial the latest "the news" attested from 1886. At the latest "at the most distant date" is from 1884.
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riding (n.2)

one of the three districts, anciently under the government of a a reeve,  into which Yorkshire was divided, late 13c., from late Old English *þriðing, a relic of Viking rule, from Old Norse ðriðjungr "third part," from ðriði "third" (see third).

The initial consonant apparently was merged by misdivision with final consonant of preceding north, west, or east.

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resolute (adj.)

early 15c., "dissolved, of loose structure," also "morally lax" (senses all obsolete), from Latin resolutus, past participle of resolvere "untie, unfasten, loose, loosen" (see resolve (v.)).

It emerged c. 1500 in the sense of "determined, decided, absolute, final," especially in the phrase resolute answer, which was "common in 16th c." [OED]. The notion is of "breaking (something) into parts" as the way to arrive at the truth of it and thus make the final determination (compare resolution).

The word has been used from 1530s of persons, "determined in mind, having a fixed resolve." Related: Resolutely; resoluteness. In Middle English a resolutif was a medicine to dissolve and disperse hardened matter (c. 1400).

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Abitur (n.)
German final secondary school exam, 1863, short for abiturium, from Modern Latin abitorire "to wish to leave," desiderative of Latin abire (neuter plural abitum) "to go away," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").
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approach (n.)
mid-15c., "act of drawing near, arrival," from approach (v.). Meaning "way or means by which something is approached" is from 1630s. Figurative sense of "means of handling a problem, etc." is attested by 1905. Sense of "final stage of an aircraft flight before landing" is by 1930.
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plough 

alternative spelling of plow (Middle English plouʒ, plouh, ploug). "The accepted spelling in England since 1700" [OED, which also notes that the final guttural began to disappear in 14c. but was retained longer in the north and Scotland]. Related: Ploughed; ploughing.

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forte (n.)

1640s, fort, from French fort "strong point (of a sword blade)," earlier "fort, fortress" (see fort). Meaning "strong point of a person, that in which one excels," is from 1680s. Final -e- added 18c. in imitation of Italian forte "strong."

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plagal (adj.)

denoting a mode or melody in Gregorian music in which the final is in the middle of the compass instead of at the bottom, 1590s, from Medieval Latin plagalis, from plaga "the plagal mode," probably from plagius, from Medieval Greek plagios "plagal," in classical Greek "oblique," from plagos "side" (from PIE root *plak- (1) "to be flat").

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