in architecture, "a vertical column between the lights of a window or screen," 1560s, metathesis of Middle English moyniel (early 14c.), from Anglo-French moinel, noun use of moienel (adj.) "middle," from Old French meien "intermediate, mean" (see mean (adj.)). Related: Mullioned.
"chief commander of a regiment of troops," 1540s, coronell, from French coronel (16c.), modified by dissimilation from Italian colonnella "commander of the column of soldiers at the head of a regiment," from compagna colonella "little column company," from Latin columna "pillar," collateral form of columen "top, summit" (from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill").
The French spelling was reformed late 16c. English spelling was modified 1580s in learned writing to conform with the Italian form (via translations of Italian military manuals), and pronunciations with "r" and "l" coexisted until c. 1650, but the earlier pronunciation prevailed. Spanish and Portuguese coronel, from Italian, show similar evolution by dissimilation and perhaps by influence of corona. Abbreviation col. is attested by 1707.
"carved, robed female figure used as a column," 1560s, from French cariatide, from Latin caryatides, from Greek Karyatides (singular Karyatis) "priestesses of Artemis at Caryae" (Greek Karyai), a town in Laconia where dance festivals were held in Artemis' temple. Male figures in a like situation are Atlantes, plural of Atlas. Related: Caryatic.
late 15c., quinqueniale, "lasting five years," from Latin quinquennalis "occurring once in five years, celebrated every fifth year," from quinquennis "of five years," from from quinque "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five"). With the ending perhaps influenced by Latin biennium etc.
Meaning "happening once every five years" is attested from c. 1600. In the inclusive reckoning that prevailed in the ancient world, the equivalent words meant "recurring every five years," reckoning both years of occurrence (by our uses, it would be "recurring every four years"), so that the Olympian games were, to the ancients, quinquennials.
As a noun, "a period of five years," from 1895; earlier quinquennal (1610s), quinquennium (1620s), and later quinquenniad (1842). The quinquennalia were Roman public games celebrated every fifth year.
"flat, square table or slab under the molding of the base of a Roman column; square molding at the base of any architectural part," 1610s, from French plinthe (16c.) and directly from Latin plinthus, from Greek plinthos "brick, squared stone," from PIE *splind- "to split, cleave," from root *(s)plei- "to splice, split" (see flint).
1650s, "discord," from Greek diaphonia "dissonance, discord," from diaphonos "discordant," from dia "through; throughout" (see dia-) + phone "voice, sound," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say." From 1834 in reference to medieval music, "earliest form of polyphony, in which two or more voices proceed in strict parallel at intervals of a fourth, fifth, or octave." Related: Diaphonic.
"part of the human spinal column consisting of the last four bones," 1610s, from Latin coccyx, from Greek kokkyx "cuckoo" (from kokku, like the bird's English name echoic of its cry), so called by ancient Greek physician Galen because the stunted, coalesced tail-bones in humans supposedly resemble a cuckoo's moderately curved beak. Related: Coccygeal.
see consequence. As the name of a round game, attested from 1796.
A game in which one player writes down an adjective, the second the name of a man, the third an adjective, the fourth the name of a woman, the fifth what he said, the sixth what she said, the seventh the consequence, etc., etc., no one seeing what the others have written. After all have written, the paper is read. [Century Dictionary]