Etymology
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high horse (n.)
originally (late 14c.) "fine, tall horse; war horse, charger" (high steed is from c. 1300), also, like high hall, used in the sense "status symbol;" figurative sense of "airs, easily wounded dignity" in mount (one's) high horse "affect airs of superiority" is from 1782 (Addison has to ride the great horse in the same sense, 1716). Compare French monter sur ses grands chevaux. "The simile is common to most languages" [Farmer].
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goosebumps (n.)
also goose-bumps, "peculiar tingling of the skin produced by cold, fear, etc.; the sensation described as 'cold water down the back'" [Farmer], 1859, from goose (n.) + bump (n.). So called because the rough condition of the skin during the sensation resembles the skin of a plucked goose. Earlier in the same sense was goose-flesh (1803) and goose-skin (1761; as goose's skin 1744), and earlier still hen-flesh (early 15c.), translating Latin caro gallinacia.
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rumbustious (adj.)

1778, an arbitrary formation, one of what Farmer describes as "A class of colloquialisms compounded with an intensive prefix" (ram- or rum-), probably suggesting in part rum (adj.) in its old slang sense of "good, fine," and ramp (n.2). In this case apparently suggested by boisterous, robustious, bumptious, etc. Coined about the same time were rumbustical, rambumptious "conceited, self-assertive," rumgumptious "shrewd, bold, rash," rumblegumption, rambuskious "rough," rumstrugenous. Also compare ramshackle, rambunctious.

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marrowsky (n.)

"A deformed language in which the initial consonants of contiguous words are transposed" [OED], 1863, said to derive from the proper name of a Polish count. Compare spoonerism, which describes the same thing.

MARROWSKYING, subs. (general).—At the London University they had a way of disguising English (described by Albert Smith, in Mr. Ledbury, 1848, as the 'Gower-street dialect'), which consisted in transposing the initials of words; as 'poke a smipe' = smoke a pipe; 'flutter-by' = butterfly; 'stint of pout' = pint of stout; etc. This is often termed MARROWSKYING. [Farmer and Henley, "Slang and Its Analogues," 1896]
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budge (v.)

1580s (intransitive) "to move, stir, change position, give way a little;" 1590s (transitive) "change the position of;" from French bougier "to move, stir" (Modern French bouger), from Vulgar Latin *bullicare "to bubble, boil" (hence, "to be in motion"), from Latin bullire "to boil" (see boil (v.)). Compare Spanish bullir "to move about, bustle;" Portuguese bulir "to move a thing from its place." In 16c. canting slang, "a general verb of action, usually stealthy action" (Farmer, "Musa Pedestris," who gives among his examples budge a beak "to give the constable the slip," budge out or off "to sneak off"). Related: Budged; budging.

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joey (n.)

"young kangaroo," 1839, sometimes said to be from a native Australian word joè, but more recently often said to be of unknown origin. Perhaps an extended use of Joey, the familiar form of the male proper name Joseph, for which Partridge lists many common or coarse meanings in 20c. Australian slang. Farmer and Henley ("Slang and Its Analogues") quote an 1887 article on "Australian Colloquialisms":

JOEY is a familiar name for anything young or small, and is applied indifferently to a puppy, or a kitten, or a child, while a WOOD-AND-WATER-JOEY is a hanger about hotels and a doer of odd jobs.
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Reuben 

masc. proper name, Old Testament eldest son of Jacob and name of the tribe descended from him, from Greek Rouben, from Hebrew Reubhen, probably literally "Behold a son," from reu, imperative of ra'ah "he saw" + ben "a son."

As a typical name of a farmer, rustic, or country bumpkin, from 1804. The Reuben sandwich of corned beef, sauerkraut, etc., on rye bread, an American specialty (1956) is the same name but "Not obviously connected" with the "country bumpkin" sense in rube [OED], but is possibly from Reuben's restaurant, a popular spot in New York's Lower East Side. Various other Reubens have been proposed as the originator.

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jackanapes (n.)

mid-15c., "a monkey," also "an impertinent, conceited fellow, an absurd fop," a general term of reproach (in mid-15c. especially a contemptuous nickname for William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk), of unknown origin. Apparently from Jack of Naples, but whether this is some specific personification of Jack (which is attested from 16c. as "saucy or impertinent fellow") or folk etymology of jack (n.) + ape (n.) is unknown. See extensive note in OED. Century Dictionary suggests "orig., it is supposed, a man who exhibited performing apes." Farmer and Henley ("Slang and Its Analogues") say "originally, no doubt, a gaudy-suited and performing ape." Its fem. counterpart is Jane-of-apes (Massinger) "a pert, forward girl."

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one-horse (adj.)

"small-scale, petty" 1853, American English, colloquial, in reference to towns; see one + horse (n.). Probably from earlier use in reference to a carriage, sleigh, plow, etc., "drawn by a single horse" (1750); also "possessing only one horse" (of a farmer); hence "petty, on a small scale, of limited capacity or resources; inferior."

Shortly afterwards I took a stroll over the town. It was what is generally denominated a "one horse town," and I would think a pretty small pony at that. Two stores, one grocery, a stable, and four dwellings made up the sum of its buildings. ["Daguerreotyping in the Back Woods," in Yankee Notions, March, 1855]
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dyke (n.)

"a lesbian," especially one considered tough, mannish, or aggressive, 1931, American English, perhaps a shortening of morphadike, a dialectal garbling of hermaphrodite; but bulldyker "engage in lesbian activities" is attested from 1921. According to "Dictionary of American Slang," a source from 1896 lists dyke as slang for "the vulva," and Farmer and Henley ("Slang and Its Analogues," 1893) has "hedge on the dyke" for "the female pubic hair." 

[T]he word appears first in the long forms, bulldiker and bulldyking, both used in the 1920s by American blacks. No African antecedents have been found for the term, however, which leads to the possibility that this is basically just another backcountry, barnyard word, perhaps a combination of BULL and DICK. [Rawson]
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