Etymology
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founder (v.)
early 14c. "to send to the bottom" (transitive); late 14c., "to sink or fall" (intransitive), from Old French fondrer "collapse; submerge, sink, fall to the bottom" (Modern French fondrier), from fond "bottom" (12c.), from Latin fundus "bottom, foundation" (see fund (n.)). Not especially of ships in Middle English, where it typically meant "fall to the ground." Figurative use from 1580s. Related: Foundered; foundering.
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pitfall (n.)

mid-14c., "concealed hole into which a person or animal may fall unawares," from pit (n.1) + fall (n.). Figurative sense of "any hidden danger or concealed source of disaster" is recorded from early 15c.

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escheat (n.)
the reverting of land to a king or lord in certain cases, early 14c., from Anglo-French eschete (late 13c.), Old French eschete "succession, inheritance," literally "that which falls to one," noun use of fem. past participle of escheoir "happen, befall, occur, take place; fall due; lapse (legally)," from Late Latin *excadere "to fall out," from Latin ex "out, away" (see ex-) + cadere "to fall" (from PIE root *kad- "to fall"). As a verb, from late 14c. Related: Escheated; escheating. Late Latin *excadere represents a restored form of excidere, which yielded excise.
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deciduous (adj.)

1680s, with reference to leaves, petals, teeth, etc., "falling off at a certain stage of existence," from Latin deciduus "that which falls down," from decidere "to fall off, fall down," from de "down" (see de-) + combining form of cadere "to fall," from PIE root *kad- "to fall." Of trees and bushes, "losing foliage every year" (opposed to evergreen), from 1778. The Latin adjective was used of shooting stars and testicles, but it seems not to have been used of trees or leaves (the phenomenon in Italy seems to be restricted to the mountain regions). Related: Deciduousness.

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rainfall (n.)

also rain-fall, by 1850 as "amount of precipitation that falls as rain, from rain (n.) + fall (n.). By 1858 as "a falling of rain."

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nightfall (n.)

"the coming on of night," 1700; see night + fall (n.).

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pratfall (n.)

"a comedy fall," by 1930, said to be a word from burlesque or vaudeville theater, from prat "buttock" + fall (n.). "Chiefly N. Amer. slang" [OED]. As a verb from 1940.

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coincide (v.)

1705, "be identical in substance or nature;" 1715, "occupy the same space, agree in position," from Medieval Latin coincidere (used in astrology), literally "to fall upon together," from assimilated form of  Latin com "with, together" (see com-) + incidere "to fall upon" (from in- "upon" + combining form of cadere "to fall," from PIE root *kad- "to fall"). From 1809 as "occur at the same time." Related: Coincided; coinciding. Latin coincidere was used as a verb in English from 1640s.

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begonia (n.)
showy flowering plant native to warm regions, 1751, from French begonia (1706), named by French botanist Charles Plumier for Michel Bégon (1638-1710), French governor of Santo Domingo (Haiti) and patron of botany, + abstract noun ending -ia.
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*kad- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fall."

It forms all or part of: accident; cadaver; cadence; caducous; cascade; case (n.1); casual; casualty; casuist; casus belli; chance; cheat; chute (n.1); coincide; decadence; decay; deciduous; escheat; incident; occasion; occident; recidivist.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit sad- "to fall down;" Latin casus "a chance, occasion, opportunity; accident, mishap," literally "a falling," cadere "to fall, sink, settle down, decline, perish;" Armenian chacnum "to fall, become low;" perhaps also Middle Irish casar "hail, lightning."
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