Etymology
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intramercurial (adj.)
"being within the orbit of the planet Mercury," 1859, especially in reference to a supposed planet orbiting there (sought in vain in the eclipse of 1860), from intra- "within, inside" + Mercury (Latin Mercurius) + -al (1). The idea originated in France in the 1840s with Urbain Le Verrier, who later became director of the Paris Observatory. There was some excitement about it in 1859 when a French doctor named Lescarbault claimed to have tracked it crossing the Sun's disk and convinced Le Verrier. It was sought in vain in the solar eclipses of 1860, '68, and '69. See Vulcan.
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micturition (n.)

1725, "the need very badly to urinate," from Latin micturitum, from past participle of micturire "to desire to urinate," desiderative of mingere "to urinate," from PIE root *meigh- "to urinate." As during the final 20 minutes of a 4-hour film after drinking a 32-ounce Mountain Dew from the snack bar and the movie ends with a drawn-out farewell scene while Frodo is standing on the pier and wavelets lap audibly on the dock the whole time as if the director was a sadist set on compounding your torment. Also used, incorrectly, for "act of urinating."

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protector (n.)

late 14c., protectour, "a defender, guardian, one who defends or shields from injury or evil," from Old French protector (14c., Modern French protecteur) and directly from Late Latin protector, agent noun from protegere (see protection). Related: Protectoral; protectorial; protectorian. Fem. forms protectrix, protectryse both attested from mid-15c. Protectee is attested from c. 1600.

In English history, "one who has care of the kingdom during the king's minority or incapacity, a regent" (as the Duke of Somerset during the reign of Edward VI); Lord Protector was the title of the head of the executive during part of the period of the Commonwealth, held by Oliver Cromwell (1653-58) and Richard Cromwell (1658-59).

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cabinet (n.)

1540s, "secret storehouse, treasure chamber; case for valuables," from French cabinet "small room" (16c.), diminutive of Old French cabane "cabin" (see cabin); perhaps influenced by (or rather, from) Italian gabbinetto, diminutive of gabbia, from Latin cavea "stall, stoop, cage, den for animals" (see cave (n.)).

Meaning "case for safe-keeping" (of papers, liquor, etc.) is from 1540s, gradually shading to mean a piece of furniture that does this. Sense of "private room where advisers meet" (c. 1600) led to modern political meaning "an executive council" (1640s); perhaps originally short for cabinet council (1620s); compare board (n.1) in its evolution from place where some group meets to the word for the group that meets there. From 1670s also "building or part of a building set aside for the conservation and study of natural specimens, art, antiquities, etc."

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rector (n.)

late 14c., rectour (late 13c. as a surname, early 13c. in Anglo-Latin), "ruler of a country or people" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin rector "ruler, governor, director, guide," from rect-, past participle stem of regere "to rule, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule").

The meaning "head of a college or religious community" is by early 15c., though the exact religious sense varies across place and time and with different denominations. Used originally of Roman governors and God; by 18c. generally restricted to clergymen and college heads. Fem. forms were rectress (c. 1600); rectrix (1610s). Related: Rectorship; rectorial.

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method (n.)

early 15c., "regular, systematic treatment of disease," from Latin methodus "way of teaching or going," from Greek methodos "scientific inquiry, method of inquiry, investigation," originally "pursuit, a following after," from meta "in pursuit or quest of" (see meta-) + hodos "a method, system; a way or manner" (of doing, saying, etc.), also "a traveling, journey," literally "a path, track, road," a word of uncertain origin (see Exodus).

Meaning "any way of doing anything, orderly regulation of conduct with a view to the attainment of an end" is from 1580s; that of "orderliness, regularity" is from 1610s. Meaning "a system or complete sent of rules for attaining an end" is from 1680s. In reference to a theory of acting associated with Russian director Konstantin Stanislavski (1863-1938), it is attested from 1923.

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prefect (n.)

mid-14c., "civil or military official, governor, magistrate," from Old French prefect (12c., Modern French préfet) and directly from Latin praefectus "public overseer, superintendent, director," a title of certain magistrates, noun use of past participle of praeficere "to put in front, to set over, put in authority," from prae "in front, before" (see pre-) + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").

The spelling has been restored from Middle English prefet. The meaning "administrative head of the Paris police" is from 1800; the sense of "senior pupil designated to keep order in an English school" is by 1864. Related: Prefectorial; prefectoral.

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president (n.)
Origin and meaning of president

late 14c., "appointed governor of a province; chosen leader of a body of persons," from Old French president and directly from Latin praesidentum (nominative praesidens) "president, governor," noun use of present participle of praesidere "to act as head or chief" (see preside). In Middle English of heads of religious houses, hospitals, almshouses, colleges and universities.

First use for "chief executive officer of a republic" is in U.S. Constitution (1787), from earlier American use for "officer in charge of the Continental Congress" (1774), earlier of individual colonies (Virginia, 1608), a sense derived from that of "chosen head of a meeting or group of persons," which is from Middle English. During and immediately after the Revolution the chief magistrates of certain states (New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Delaware, South Carolina) took the title, which eventually reverted to governor.

It had been used of chief officers of banks from 1781. Slang shortening prez is recorded from 1883. Fem. form presidentess is attested from 1763.

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radio (n.)

"wireless transmission of voice signals with radio waves," 1907, abstracted or shortened from earlier combinations such as radio-receiver (1903), radiophone "instrument for the production of sound by radiant energy" (1881), radio-telegraphy "means of sending telegraph messages by radio rather than by wire" (1898), from radio- as a combining form of Latin radius "beam" (see radius). Use for "radio receiver" is attested by 1913; sense of "sound broadcasting as a medium" also is from 1913.

That winter, however—the winter of 1921-22—[radio] came with a rush. Soon everybody was talking, not about wireless telephony, but about radio. A San Francisco paper described the discovery that millions were making: "There is radio music in the air, every night, everywhere. Anybody can hear it at home on a receiving set, which any boy can put up in an hour." In February President Harding had an outfit installed in his study, and the Dixmoor Golf Club announced that it would install a "telephone" to enable golfers to hear church services. [Frederick Lewis Allen, "Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920's," 1931]
It is not a dream, but a probability that the radio will demolish blocs, cut the strings of red tape, actuate the voice "back home," dismantle politics and entrench the nation's executive in a position of power unlike that within the grasp of any executive in the world's history. [The Reading Eagle, Reading, Pa., U.S.A., March 16, 1924]

As late as July 1921 the New York Times was calling it wireless telephony, and wireless remained widespread until World War II, when military preference for radio established it as the word. As an adjective by 1912, "by radio transmission;" meaning "controlled by radio" is from 1974. Radio _______ as the proper name of a particular radio station or service, "radio station or service from _______" is by 1920. A radio shack (1946) was a small outbuilding housing radio equipment.

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conductor (n.)

1520s, "one who leads or guides," from French conductour (14c., Old French conduitor), from Latin conductor "one who hires, contractor," in Late Latin "a carrier," from conductus, past participle of conducere "to lead or bring together, contribute, serve," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + ducere "to lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead").

Earlier in same sense was conduitour (early 15c., from Old French conduitor). Meaning "a director or manager" is from 1630s; specific sense of "leader of an orchestra or chorus" is from 1784. Meaning "one who has charge of passengers and collects fares on a railroad" is 1832, American English. Physics sense of "object or device that passes heat or other energy" is from 1745; of electricity from 1737.

The office of conductor in the modern sense was not clearly distinguished from that of leader until about 1800; formerly the leader played an instrument, usually the harpsichord [Century Dictionary]
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