Etymology
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sorcerer (n.)

early 15c., "conjurer of evil spirits," displacing earlier sorcer (late 14c.), from Old French sorcier, from Medieval Latin sortarius "teller of fortunes by lot; sorcerer" (also source of Spanish sortero, Italian sortiere; see sorcery). With superfluous -er, as in poulterer, upholsterer; perhaps the modern form of the word is back-formed from sorcery.

Sorcerer's apprentice translates l'apprenti sorcier, title of a symphonic poem by Paul Dukas (1897) based on a Goethe ballad ("Der Zauberlehrling," 1797), but the common figurative use of the term in English (1952) comes after Disney's "Fantasia" (1940).

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tread (v.)

Old English tredan "to tread, step on, trample; traverse, pass over" (class V strong verb; past tense træd, past participle treden), from Proto-Germanic *tred- (source also of Old Saxon tredan, Old Frisian treda, Middle Dutch treden, Old High German tretan, German treten, Gothic trudan, Old Norse troða), from PIE *der- (1) "assumed base of roots meaning 'to run, walk, step'" [Watkins]. Related: Trod; treading. To tread water in swimming, "to move the feet and hands regularly up and down while keeping the body in an erect position in order to keep the head above the water" is attested by 1764.

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tear (v.1)

"pull apart," Old English teran "to tear, lacerate" (class IV strong verb; past tense tær, past participle toren), from Proto-Germanic *teran (source also of Old Saxon terian, Middle Dutch teren "to consume," Old High German zeran "to destroy," German zehren, Gothic ga-tairan "to tear, destroy"), from PIE root *der- "to split, flay, peel."

The Old English past tense survived long enough to get into Bible translations as tare before giving place 17c. to tore, which is from the old past participle toren. Sense of "to pull by force" (away from some situation or attachment) is attested from late 13c. To be torn between two alternatives (desires, loyalties, lovers, etc.) is by 1871.

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hetero- 

before vowels heter-, word-forming element meaning "other, different," from Greek heteros "the other (of two), another, different; second; other than usual." It is a compound; the first element means "one, at one, together," from PIE root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with;" the second is cognate with the second element in Latin al-ter, Gothic an-þar, Old English o-ðer "other."

Compounds in classical Greek show the range of the word there: Heterokretes "true Cretan," (that is, of the old stock); heteroglossos "of foreign language;" heterozelos "zealous for one side;" heterotropos "of a different sort or fashion," literally "turning the other way;" heterophron "raving," literally "of other mind."

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kibitzer (n.)

"one who looks on at card games and offers unwelcome advice," 1915, from Yiddish, agent noun from kibitz (q.v.). "Der Kibitzer" is noted as the name of a Yiddish humorous weekly published in New York from 1908-1912. ["The Jewish Press in New York City," 1918]

LICENSE TO "KIBITZ"
"This license entitles bearer to 'kibitz'; to sit near any table of players; to criticize, knock, boost or do anything that will abuse players.
"If a man makes a wrong play it is up to the 'kibitzer' to correct him, and the 'kibitzer' will be held personally responsible should the player lose, and this license will be forfeited.
"Any licensed 'kibitzer' not abiding by above rules and regulations Will be subject to fine or imprisonment."
[notice said to have been posed on the bulletin board of the club room of the Associated Traveling Salesmen of New York, quoted in The Clothier and Furnisher, March 1915]
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Laurence 

masc. proper name, from Old French Lorenz (French Laurent), from Latin Laurentius, literally "of Laurentum," a maritime town in Latium, the name of which means literally "town of bay trees," from laurus (see laurel). The Italian form is Lorenzo.

A popular given name in the Middle Ages, as a surname it is attested in England from mid-12c. Larkin is a pet-form, along with Larry. For some reason, the name at least since 18c. has been the personification of indolence (compare German der faule Lenz "Lazy Lawrence"). But in Scotland, the pet form Lowrie has been used for "a fox" (c. 1500), also for "a crafty person" (1560s). Lawrence is the Law- in the surname Lawson, and a diminutive pet form is preserved in the surname Lowery/Laurie, etc.

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turd (n.)

Old English tord "piece of excrement," from Proto-Germanic *turdam (source also of Middle Dutch torde "piece of excrement," Old Norse tord-yfill, Dutch tort-wevel "dung beetle"), from PIE *drtom, past participle of root *der- "to split, flay, peel;" thus "that which is separated ("torn off") from the body" (compare shit (v.) from root meaning "to split;" Greek skatos from root meaning "to cut off; see scatology). As a type of something worthless and vile, it is attested from mid-13c. Meaning "despicable person" is recorded from mid-15c.

A tord ne yeue ic for eu alle ["The Owl and the Nightingale," c. 1250]
Alle thingis ... I deme as toordis, that I wynne Crist. [Wyclif, Philippians iii.8, 1382; KJV has "I count all things ... but dung, that I may win Christ"]
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Coca-Cola 

invented 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S., by druggist Dr. John S. Pemberton. So called because original ingredients were derived from coca leaves and cola nuts. It contained minute amounts of cocaine until 1909.

Drink the brain tonic and intellectual soda fountain beverage Coca-Cola. [Atlanta Evening Journal, June 30, 1887]

Coca-colanization, also Coca-colonization was coined 1950 during an attempt to ban the beverage in France, led by the communist party and the wine-growers.

France's Communist press bristled with warnings against US "Coca-Colonization." Coke salesmen were described as agents of the OSS and the U.S. State Department. "Tremble," roared Vienna's Communist Der Abend, "Coca-Cola is on the march!" [Time magazine, March 13, 1950]

Coca-colonialism attested by 1956.

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trap (n.)

"contrivance for catching unawares," late Old English træppe, treppe "snare, trap," from Proto-Germanic *trep- (source also of Middle Dutch trappe "trap, snare"), related to Germanic words for "stair, step, tread" (Middle Dutch, Middle Low German trappe, treppe, German Treppe "step, stair," English tread (v.)).

This is probably literally "that on or into which one steps," from PIE *dreb-, an extended form of a root *der- (1), base of words meaning "to run, walk, step." The English word is probably akin to Old French trape, Spanish trampa "trap, pit, snare," but the exact relationship is uncertain.

The sense of "deceitful practice, device or contrivance to betray one" is recorded from c. 1400. The meaning "U-shaped section of a drain pipe" is from 1833. Slang meaning "mouth" is from 1776. Speed trap is by 1908. Trap-door "door in a floor or ceiling" (often hidden and leading to a passageway or secret place) is attested from late 14c. (trappe-dore).

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deuce (n.)

late 15c., dews, "the 2 in dice or cards," also "a roll of 2 in dice" (1510s), from Old French deus (Modern French deux), from Latin duos (nominative duo) "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two"). The spelling -ce from -s to reflect voiceless pronunciation is as in dice, pence, etc.

The word became a mild oath by 1710, about 50 years after it was first attested in the sense of "bad luck, the devil, etc.," perhaps because two was the lowest score, and probably by similarity to Latin deus and related words meaning "god." According to OED, 16c. Low German had der daus! in the same sense, which perhaps influenced the English form.

In tennis, "a stage of the game in which both players or sides have scored 40, and one must score 2 points to win," 1590s. Deuce coupe is 1940s hot-rodder slang for "souped up two-door car," especially a 1932 Ford. Related: Deuced; deucedly.

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