early 15c., repulsen, "hold (something) back; drive (someone) away," from Latin repulsus, past participle of repellere "drive back, reject" (see repel). Also compare Medieval Latin repulsare. Related: Repulsed; repulsing.
c. 1600, "impulsive, propulsive," from past-participle stem of Latin pellere "to drive, strike" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). By 1960 as "making a beating or throbbing sound." Related: Pulsively; pulsiveness.
1580s, "to disturb," from Latin agitatus, past participle of agitare "to put in constant or violent motion, drive onward, impel," frequentative of agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," figuratively "incite to action; keep in movement, stir up" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
The sense of "move to and fro, shake" is from 1590s. The meaning "to discuss, debate" is from 1640s, that of "keep (a political or social question) constantly in public view" is by 1828. Related: Agitated; agitating.
1580s, "obligatory, arising from compulsion, done under compulsion," from Medieval Latin compulsorius, from Latin compulsus, past participle of compellere "to drive together, force," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). As "coercive, exercising compulsion" from 1630s. As a noun from 1510s, originally "a compulsory means." Related: Compulsories; compulsorily; compulsoriness.
1610s (intransitive), from Latin litigatus, past participle of litigare "to dispute, carry on a suit," from phrase litem agere "to drive a suit," from litem (nominative lis) "lawsuit, dispute, quarrel, strife" (which is of uncertain origin) + agere "to set in motion, drive forward" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Transitive sense is from 1741. Related: Litigated; litigating.
c. 1600, "exercising compulsion, tending to compel," from French compulsif, from Latin compulsus, past participle of compellere "to drive together, force," from com "with, together" (see com-) + pellere "to drive" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive").
Psychological sense "acting on an instant impulse to behave in a certain way" is from 1902. As a noun, "something that tends to compel," attested from 1630s; psychological sense "person subject to compulsions" is from 1957. Related: Compulsively; compulsiveness.
Old English wrecan "avenge," originally "to drive, drive out, punish" (class V strong verb; past tense wræc, past participle wrecen), from Proto-Germanic *wrekanan (source also of Old Saxon wrekan, Old Norse reka, Old Frisian wreka, Middle Dutch wreken "to drive, push, compel, pursue, throw," Old High German rehhan, German rächen "to avenge," Gothic wrikan "to persecute"), from PIE root *wreg- "to push, shove, drive, track down" (see urge (v.)). Meaning "inflict or take vengeance," with on, is recorded from late 15c.; that of "inflict or cause (damage or destruction)" is attested from 1817. Compare wrack (v.). Related: Wreaked; wreaking.