Etymology
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mole (n.4)

unit of molecular quantity, 1902, from German Mol coined 1900 by German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald, short for Molekül (see molecule).

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dislocation (n.)
Origin and meaning of dislocation

c. 1400, dislocacioun, "displacement of parts," originally of bones of the limbs, from Old French dislocacion (14c.), or directly from Medieval Latin dislocationem (nominative dislocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of dislocare "put out of place," from Latin dis- "away" (see dis-) + locare "to place," from locus "a place," which is of uncertain origin. General sense is from c. 1600.

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lux (n.)
unit of illumination, 1889, from Latin lux "light," from PIE root *leuk- "light, brightness."
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megawatt (v.)

unit of measure equivalent to one million watts, 1885, from mega- "one million" + watt.

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rad (n.)

1918, "x-ray dose unit," a shortened form of radiation (q.v.). The meaning "unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation" is by 1954, an acronym from radiation absorbed dose. As shortened form of radical (n.), it is attested in political slang from 1820. Teen slang adjectival sense of "extraordinary, wonderful" is from late 1970s (see radical (adj.)).

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storage (n.)
1610s, "space for storing," from store (v.) + -age. Storage unit as a household piece attested from 1951.
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micro- 

word-forming element meaning "small in size or extent, microscopic; magnifying;" in science indicating a unit one millionth of the unit it is prefixed to; from Latinized form of mikros, Attic form of Greek smikros "small, little, petty, trivial, slight," perhaps from PIE *smika, from root *smik- "small" (source also of Old High German smahi "littleness"), but Beekes thinks it a Pre-Greek word.

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nephron (n.)

"a filtration unit of the kidney," 1932, from German nephron (1924), from Greek nephros "kidney" (see nephro-).

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astronomical (adj.)

1550s, "pertaining to astronomy," from astronomy + -ical. The popular meaning "immense, concerning very large figures" (as sizes and distances in astronomy) is attested from 1899. Astronomical unit (abbreviation A.U.) "mean distance from the Earth to the Sun," used as a unit of measure of distance in space, is from 1909. Related: Astronomically.

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liter (n.)
unit of capacity in the metric system, 1797, from French litre (1793), from litron, name of an obsolete French measure of capacity for grain (16c.), from Medieval Latin litra, from Greek litra "pound" (unit of weight), which apparently is from the same Sicilian Italic source as Latin libra (see Libra).
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