Etymology
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starve (v.)

Old English steorfan "to die" (past tense stearf, past participle storfen), literally "become stiff," from Proto-Germanic *sterbanan "be stiff, starve" (source also of Old Frisian sterva, Old Saxon sterban, Dutch sterven, Old High German sterban "to die," Old Norse stjarfi "tetanus"), from extended form of PIE root *ster- (1) "stiff."

The conjugation became weak in English by 16c. The sense narrowed to "die of cold" (14c.); transitive meaning "to kill with hunger" is first recorded 1520s (earlier to starve of hunger, early 12c.). Intransitive sense of "to die of hunger" dates from 1570s. German cognate sterben retains the original sense of the word, but the English has come so far from its origins that starve to death (1910) is now common.

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harden (n.)
c. 1200, transitive, "make (something) hard," from hard (adj.) + -en (1). Intransitive meaning "to become hard" is late 14c. The earlier verb was simply hard, from Old English heardian. Related: Hardened; hardening.
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expire (v.)

c. 1400, "to die," from Old French expirer "expire, elapse" (12c.), from Latin expirare/exspirare "breathe out, blow out, exhale; breathe one's last, die," hence, figuratively, "expire, come to an end, cease," from ex "out" (see ex-) + spirare "to breathe" (see spirit (n.)). "Die" is the older sense in English; that of "breathe out" is attested from 1580s. Of laws, patents, treaties, etc., mid-15c. In 17c. also transitive. Related: Expired; expiring.

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obduration (n.)

c. 1400, obduracioun, "hard-heartedness; defiant impenitence," from Late Latin obdurationem (nominative obduratio) "a hardening," noun of state from past-participle stem of Latin obdurare "harden, render hard; be hard or hardened" (see obdurate).

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slog (n.)
1846, "a hard hit," from slog (v.). Sense of "spell of hard work" is from 1888.
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dysphoria (n.)

"impatience under affliction," 1842, from Greek dysphoria "pain hard to be borne, anguish," etymologically "hard to bear," from dys- "bad, hard" (see dys-) + pherein "to carry" (from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry").

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adamantine (adj.)

c. 1200, "made of adamant; having the qualities of adamant" (hard, unyielding, unbreakable, inflexible), from Latin adamantinus "hard as steel, inflexible," from Greek adamantinos "hard as adamant," from adamas (genitive adamantos) "unbreakable, inflexible," as a noun, "hardest material" (see adamant (n.)).

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hardship (n.)
c. 1200, "quality of being hard" (obsolete), from hard (adj.) + -ship. Meaning "disadvantage, suffering, privation" is c. 1400.
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decease (v.)
Origin and meaning of decease

"to die, depart from life," early 15c., decesen, from decease (n.). Related: Deceased; deceasing.

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dying (n.)

late 13c., "death, act of expiring, loss of life," verbal noun from die (v.).

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