Etymology
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dengue (n.)

"febrile epidemic disease of the tropics," 1828, from West Indian Spanish dengue, from an African source, perhaps Swahili dinga "seizure, cramp," with form influenced by Spanish dengue "prudery" (perhaps because sufferers walk stiffly and erect due to the painful joints which characterize the disease). The disease is from East Africa and was introduced into the West Indies in 1827.

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anoxic (adj.)

"characterized by or causing lack of oxygen in tissues," 1920, medical Latin, from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + first two letters of oxygen + -ic. Anoxia "oxygen deficiency" is attested from 1931.

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pathognomonic (adj.)

"belonging to or inseparable from a disease," 1680s, from patho- "disease, suffering" + Greek gnōmōnikos "able to judge," from gnōmōn "one who knows" (see gnomon). Related: Pathognomonical (1640s); pathognomy

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ailment (n.)

"sickness, disease, indisposition," 1706, from ail + -ment.

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hysteresis (n.)

"a lagging of one of two related phenomenon behind the other" [Century Dictionary], 1881, from Greek hysteresis "a coming short, a deficiency," from hysteros "later, second, after," from PIE *ud-tero-, from root *ud- "up, out" (see out (adv.)). Earlier as a term in rhetoric.

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epidemic (n.)

1757, "an epidemic disease, a temporary prevalence of a disease throughout a community," from epidemic (adj.); earlier epideme (see epidemy). An Old English noun for this (persisting in Middle English) was man-cwealm.

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kwashiorkor (n.)

1935, from a native name in Ghana for the disease.

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lack (n.)

c. 1300, "absence, want; shortage, deficiency," not found in Old English, of uncertain origin. Perhaps it is from an unrecorded Old English *lac, or else borrowed from Middle Dutch lak "deficiency, fault;" in either case probably from Proto-Germanic *lek- (source also of Old Frisian lek "disadvantage, damage," Old Norse lakr "lacking" (in quality), "deficient" (in weight)), from PIE *leg- (2) "to dribble, trickle" (see leak (v.)). Middle English also had lackless "without blame or fault."

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idiopathy (n.)

"primary disease," 1690s, Modern Latin, from medical Greek idiopatheia, from idios "one's own" (see idiom) + -patheia, abstract noun formation from pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Related: idiopathic.

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prophylaxis (n.)

"preventive treatment of disease, a guarding against the attack of some disease," 1746, Modern Latin, from Greek prophylassein "to keep guard before," from pro "before" (see pro-) + phylassein "to watch over, guard" (see prophylactic).

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