Etymology
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mendicant (adj.)

"practicing beggary, living by alms or doles" (in reference to orders of friars), late 15c., mendicaunt, from Latin mendicantem (nominative mendicans) present participle of mendicare "to beg, ask alms," from mendicus "beggar," originally "cripple" (connection via cripples who must beg), from menda "fault, physical defect," from PIE root *mend- "physical defect, fault" (see amend (v.)).

Meaning "reduced to beggary, begging" is from 1610s. The older word in Middle English in relation to religious orders was mendinant (mid-14c.), from Old French mendinant, present participle of mendiner "to beg," from the same Latin source. The mendicant orders (freurs mendicantes or begging friars, principally the Franciscans, the Carmelites, and the Augustinians) were those religious orders which originally depended for support on the alms they received.

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double talk (n.)

"deliberately unintelligible speech," by 1938, from double (adj.) + talk (n.). Old English had a similar formation in twispræc "double speech, deceit, detraction." An analysis of Chinook jargon from 1913 lists mox wawa "a lie," literally "double talk."

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phrasing (n.)

"wording of a speech or passage," 1610s, verbal noun from phrase (v.).

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blandiloquence (n.)
"flattery in speech," 1650s, from Latin blandiloquentia, from blandiloquens "speaking flatteringly," from blandus "flattering, alluring" (see bland) + loquens, from loqui "to speak" (from PIE root *tolkw- "to speak"). Blandiloquous is attested earlier (1610s). Latin also had blandiloquentulus "flattering in speech."
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lingo (n.)
"foreign speech," 1650s, probably a corruption of Latin lingua "speech, language; tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue"), perhaps immediately as a shortening of lingua franca (q.v.), or from Provençal lingo "language, tongue," from Old Provençal lenga, from Latin lingua.
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jargon (n.)
mid-14c., "unintelligible talk, gibberish; chattering, jabbering," from Old French jargon "a chattering" (of birds), also "language, speech," especially "idle talk; thieves' Latin" (12c.). Ultimately of echoic origin (compare Latin garrire "to chatter").

From 1640s as "mixed speech, pigin;" 1650s as "phraseology peculiar to a sect or profession," hence "mode of speech full of unfamiliar terms." Middle English also had it as a verb, jargounen "to chatter" (late 14c.), from French.
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burr (n.)
"rough sound of the letter -r-" (especially that common in Northumberland), 1760, later extended to "northern accented speech" in general. Possibly the sound of the word is imitative of the speech peculiarity itself, or it was adapted from one of the senses of bur (q.v.), perhaps from the phrase to have a bur in (one's) throat (late 14c.), which was a figure of speech for "feel a choking sensation, huskiness." OED says the Scottish -r- is a lingual trill, not a true burr.
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apologue (n.)
"moral fable, fictitious story intended to convey useful truths," 1550s, from French apologue, from Latin apologus, from Greek apologos "a story, tale, fable," from apo "off, away from" (see apo-) + logos "speech" (see Logos). Literally, "(that which comes) from a speech."
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amblyopia (n.)

1706, "weakening of the eyesight without any apparent defect in the eyes," medical Latin, from Greek amblyopia "dim-sightedness," noun of action from amblys "dulled, blunt" (from a suffixed form of PIE root *mel- (1) "soft") + ōps "eye" (from PIE root *okw- "to see") + abstract noun ending -ia. Related: Amblyopic.

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phonetics (n.)

"phonetic science, scientific study of speech," 1841, from phonetic; also see -ics.

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