Etymology
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indict (v.)

formerly also endict, c. 1300, enditen, inditen, "bring formal charges against (someone); accuse of a crime," from Anglo-French enditer "accuse, indict, find chargeable with a criminal offense" (late 13c.), Old French enditier, enditer "to dictate, write, compose; (legally) indict," from Vulgar Latin *indictare "to declare, accuse, proclaim in writing," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + Latin dictare "to declare, dictate," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

Retained its French pronunciation after the spelling was re-Latinized c. 1600.  Later 14c. non-legal senses "write, compose (a poem, etc.); dictate" have gone with the older form, endite, indite (q.v.). The sense is perhaps partly confused with Latin indicare "to point out." In classical Latin, indictus meant "not said, unsaid" (from in- "not"). Related: Indictable; indicted; indicting.

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certifiable (adj.)

1846, "capable of being declared as true," from certify + -able. Meaning "so deranged as to be certifiably insane" is recorded from 1870, from certify in the specific sense "officially declare (someone) to be insane" (1822). The certification was done by local officials, later medical officers, and often included a statement as to whether the person was harmless or dangerous, curable or incurable.

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firm (v.)
c. 1300, fermen "make firm, establish," from Old French fermer "consolidate; fasten, secure; build, set up; fortify" (12c.) or directly from Latin firmare "make firm; affirm; strengthen, fortify, sustain; establish, prove, declare," from firmus "strong, steadfast, stable" (see firm (adj.)). Intransitive use, "become firm" is from 1879; with up (adv.) from 1956. Related: Firmed; firming.
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assert (v.)

c. 1600, "declare;" 1640s, "vindicate, maintain, or defend by words or measures," from Latin assertus, past participle of asserere/adserere "to claim, lay claim to, appropriate," from ad "to" (see ad-) + serere "to join together, put in a row" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). Related: Asserted; asserting. To assert oneself "stand up for one's rights or authority" is recorded from 1879.

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certify (v.)

mid-14c., "to declare the truth of," also "to vouch for or confirm" (an official record, etc.), from Old French certefiier "make certain, witness the truth of" (12c.), from Late Latin certificare "to certify, to make certain," from Latin certus "fixed, sure" (see certain) + root of facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Also used in Middle English in broader senses of "inform, give notice to; instruct, to direct; to designate." Related: Certified; certifying.

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avow (v.)
c. 1300, "uphold, support, approve; stand by, back up (someone); declare openly, take sides openly, affirm;" mid-14c. "admit openly," from Anglo-French avouer, Old French avoer "acknowledge, accept, recognize," especially as a protector (12c., Modern French avouer), from Latin advocare "to call, summon, invite" (see advocate (n.)). A synonym of avouch (q.v.), which tends to contain the more technical, legal aspect of the word. Related: Avowed; avowing.
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indite (v.)
formerly also endite, late 14c., "put down in writing," from Old French enditer, enditier "dictate, write; draw up, draft; (legally) indict," from Vulgar Latin *indictare, from Latin in- "in, into, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + dictare "to declare," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). The same word as indict but retaining a French form. Related: Indited; inditing.
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prediction (n.)

"act of predicting; a prophecy, a declaration concerning future events," 1560s, from French prédiction and directly from Medieval Latin predictionem (nominative predictio), from Latin praedictio "a foretelling," noun of action from past-participle stem of praedicere "assert, proclaim, declare publicly" (see predict).

Prediction may or may not be an inspired act : it is most commonly used of the foretelling of events in accordance with knowledge gained through scientific investigations or practical experience .... [Century Dictionary]
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renounce (v.)

late 14c., renouncen, "give up (something, especially to another), resign, surrender," from Old French renoncier "give up, cede" (12c., Modern French renoncer) and directly from Latin renuntiare "bring back word; proclaim; protest against, renounce," from re- "against" (see re-) + nuntiare "to report, announce," from nuntius "messenger" (from PIE root *neu- "to shout").

The sense of "abandon, discontinue" (a habit, practice, etc.) is from late 15c.. That of "disclaim relationship with or allegiance to" a person is by c. 1500. That of "to abandon or give up" a belief, opinion, etc. by open recantation, declare against" is from 1530s. Related: Renounced; renouncing; renouncement.

Renounce, to declare strongly, with more or less of formality, that we give up some opinion, profession, or pursuit forever. Thus, a pretender to a throne may renounce his claim. Recant, to make publicly known that we give up a principle or belief formerly maintained, from conviction of its erroneousness ; the word therefore implies the adoption of the opposite belief. [Century Dictionary]
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legitimate (adj.)

mid-15c., "lawfully begotten, born of parents legally married," from past partixiple of Old French legitimer and directly from Medieval Latin legitimatus, past participle of legitimare "make lawful, declare to be lawful," from Latin legitimus "lawful," originally "fixed by law, in line with the law," from lex (genitive legis) "law" (see legal). Transferred sense of "genuine, real" is attested from 1550s. Related: Legitimately; legitimateness. The older adjective in English was legitime "lawful, of legitimate birth" (late 14c.), from Old French legitime, from Latin legitimus.

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