Etymology
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weekday (n.)
Old English wicudæge, wucudæge "day of the week" (similar formation in Old High German wehhatag, Old Norse vikudagr). See week + day. In Middle English, any day other than Sunday.
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adays (adv.)
late 14c., "by day; on or in the day or time," with adverbial genitive -s from earlier aday (mid-13c.), prepositional phrase used as an adverb, from a- (1) "on, on each" + day (n.). The genitive ending now is regarded as an accusative plural.
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birthday (n.)
late 14c., from Old English byrddæg, "anniversary or celebration of one's birth" (at first usually a king or saint); see birth (n.) + day. Meaning "day on which one is born" is from 1570s. Birthnight is attested from 1620s.
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workday (n.)

Old English weorcdæg, from work (n.) + day (n.), but this apparently meant "day when work was suspended," as it glosses Latin feria. The modern word is perhaps a Middle English re-formation. As an adjective (c. 1500) it has generally only the literal sense (compare workaday).

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midday (n.)

also mid-day, "the middle of the day," from Old English middæg "midday, noon," contracted from midne dæg; see mid (adj.) + day. Similar formation in Old Frisian middei, Dutch middag, Old High German mittitag, German Mittag, Old Norse miðdagr. As an adjective, "of or pertaining to midday," from early 14c.

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someday (adv.)

"at some indefinite future date," 1768, from some + day. As two words, in the same sense, from late 14c.

MISS SOMEDAY.
Poor Charley wooed, but wooed in vain,
From Monday until Sunday;
Still Cupid whisper'd to the swain
"You'll conquer Betsey Someday."
[The Port Folio, June 1816]
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daylight (n.)

c. 1300 (as two words from mid-12c., daies liht), "the light of day," from day + light (n.); its figurative sense of "clearly visible open space between two things" (1820) has been used in references to boats in a race, U.S. football running backs avoiding opposing tackles, a rider and a saddle, and the rim of a glass and the surface of the liquor. The (living) daylights that you beat or scare out of someone were originally slang for "the eyes" (1752), extended figuratively to the vital senses. Daylight-saving is attested by 1908.

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Bundestag (n.)
German federal council, 1879, from German Bundestag, from genitive of Bund "league, confederacy, association" (related to English band (n.2) and bind (v.)) + tag, literally "day;" as a verb, tagen, "to sit in conference" (see day; also compare adjourn). Hence also Bundesrat "federal council of the German empire" (1872), from rat, rath "council" (see rathskeller).
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holiday (n.)
1500s, earlier haliday (c. 1200), from Old English haligdæg "holy day, consecrated day, religious anniversary; Sabbath," from halig "holy" (see holy) + dæg "day" (see day); in 14c. meaning both "religious festival" and "day of exemption from labor and recreation," but pronunciation and sense diverged 16c. As an adjective mid-15c. Happy holidays is from mid-19c., in British English, with reference to summer vacation from school. As a Christmastime greeting, by 1937, American English, in Camel cigarette ads.
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daily (adj.)

"happening or being every day," mid-15c.; see day + -ly (1). Compare Old English dglic, a form found in compounds: twadglic "happening once in two days," reodglic "happening once in three days." The more usual Old English adjective was dghwamlic (also dgehwelc), which became Middle English daiwhamlich. Cognate with German tglich.

As an adverb, "every day, day by day," early 15c. (the Old English adverb was dghwamlice. As a noun, "a daily newspaper," by 1832.

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