c. 1300, "to condemn, curse," also "to destroy utterly;" from Anglo-French confoundre, Old French confondre (12c.) "crush, ruin, disgrace, throw into disorder," from Latin confundere "to confuse, jumble together, bring into disorder," especially of the mind or senses, "disconcert, perplex," properly "to pour, mingle, or mix together," from assimilated form of com "together" (see con-) + fundere "to pour" (from nasalized form of PIE root *gheu- "to pour").
From mid-14c. as "to put to shame, disgrace." The figurative sense of "confuse the mind, perplex" emerged in Latin, passed into French and thence to English by late 14c. The Latin past participle confusus, meanwhile, became confused (q.v.). The meaning "treat or regard erroneously as identical" is from 1580s.
often Englished as ataxy, 1660s in pathology, "irregularity of bodily functions," medical Latin, from Greek ataxia, abstract noun from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + taxis "arrangement, order," from stem of tassein "to arrange" (see tactics). It was used earlier in English in a sense of "confusion, disorder" (1610s).
1580s, "opposed to moral order, disposed to violate the restraints of public morality;" also "opposed to legal authority, disposed to violate law;" see disorder (n.) + -ly (1). The meaning "untidy, being out of proper order" is attested from 1630s; the older senses are those in disorderly house, disorderly conduct, etc.
"nervous disorder peculiar to Siberia, in which the patient mimics everything said or done by another," also often characterized by obscene speech, 1884, from Russian, said to mean literally "to be epileptic." Early writings on it compared it to the latah of South Asia and Malaysia and the Jumpers of Maine.
mid-15c., sedicious, "tending to incite treason, given to or guilty of sedition," from Old French sedicios (Modern French séditieux) and directly from Latin seditiosus "full of discord, factious, mutinous," from seditio "civil disorder, rebellion, mutiny" (see sedition). Related: Seditiously; seditiousness. As a noun, seditionary is attested from c. 1600.
late 14c., "make a deep, heavy, continuous sound," also "move with a rolling, thundering sound," also "create disorder and confusion," probably related to Middle Dutch rommelen "to rumble," Middle High German rummeln, Old Norse rymja "to shout, roar," all of imitative origin. Slang sense of "engage in a gang-fight" is by 1959. Related: Rumbled; rumbling.
"pull roughly, disorder, dishevel," mid-15c., frequentative of -tousen "handle or push about roughly," probably from an unrecorded Old English *tusian, from Proto-Germanic *tus- (source also of Frisian tusen, Old High German erzusen, German zausen "to tug, pull, dishevel"); related to tease (v.). Related: Tousled; tousling.
1570s, "spiny, full of sharp points, armed with prickles" (originally of holly leaves), from prickle (n.) + -y (2). Figurative sense of "irritable, quick to anger" is recorded by 1862. Prickly heat "inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands" is from 1736, so called for the sensation; prickly pear, of the fruit of a certain cactus, is from 1760 (earlier prickle pear, 1610s). Related: Prickliness.
"respiratory disorder characterized by paroxysms of labored breathing and a feeling of contraction in the chest," late 14c., asma, asma, from Latin asthma, from Greek asthma "shortness of breath, a panting," from azein "breathe hard," probably related to anemos "wind" (from PIE root *ane- "to breathe;" see animus). The -th- was restored in English 16c.