early 15c., from Old French imputer, emputer (14c.) and directly from Latin imputare "to reckon, make account of, charge, ascribe," from assimilated form of in- "in, into" (from PIE root *en "in") + putare "to trim, prune; reckon, clear up, settle (an account)," from PIE *puto- "cut, struck," suffixed form of root *pau- (2) "to cut, strike, stamp." Related: Imputed; imputing.
c. 1600, "small groove cut in wood or stone," from French chanfraindre (15c., Modern French chanfreiner), past participle of chanfraint, a word of uncertain origin. The second element seems to be from Latin frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break"); perhaps the whole word is cantum frangere "to break the edge."
Meaning "sloping surface in place of a square edge or corner" is attested from c. 1840, but the connection to the other sense is uncertain. As a verb from 1560s, "cut a furrow in;" from 1680s as "cut or grind into a symmetrical sloping edge."
One of the newest plans for the economical use of artificial ice has recently been patented by Van der Weyde, of Holland. The invention is based on the fact that two smooth surfaces of freshly cut ice when brought into contact at a temperature below thirty-two degrees will unite firmly. At a higher temperature the junction yields to a blow, and the ice breaks into the original parts. Van der Weyde casts blocks of ice into small cubes, which are stamped with a trade mark. These cubes are joined into a larger cube of any desired weight and sent out for use. The mark is a guarantee that the ice is pure, and the small cubes, weighing an ounce each, are easily separated into a shape convenient for use. ["Artificial Ice in Cubes," Lawrence Chieftain (Mount Vernon, Missouri), June 21, 1894]
1841, "a young cod, split and fried or boiled," a New England word of uncertain origin, possibly from Dutch schrood "piece cut off," from Middle Dutch scrode "shred" (cognate with Old English screade "piece cut off;" see shred (n.)). If this is the origin, the notion is probably of fish cut into pieces for drying or cooking.
A Boston brahmin is on a business trip to Philadelphia. In search of dinner, and hungry for that Boston favorite, broiled scrod, he hops into a cab and asks the driver, "My good man, take me someplace where I can get scrod." The cabbie replies, "Pal, that's the first time I've ever been asked that in the passive pluperfect subjunctive." [an old joke in Philadelphia, this version of it from "Vex, Hex, Smash, Smooch," Constance Hale, 2012]
late 14c., morteise, "hole in which something is fitted" (originally of the hole in which Christ's cross was inserted); mid-15c. in the carpentry sense "hollow or groove cut in a piece of wood into which a corresponding projection (called a tenon) is fitted to form a joint;" from Old French mortaise (13c.), which is of uncertain origin. Possibly from Arabic murtazz "fastened," past participle of razza "cut a mortise in." Compare Spanish mortaja.
1803, "to cut off in lumps," from junk (n.1). The meaning "to throw away as trash, to scrap" is from 1908. Related: Junked; junking.
New settlers (who should always be here as early in the spring as possible) begin to cut down the wood where they intend to erect their first house. As the trees are cut the branches are to be lopped off, and the trunks cut into lengths of 12 or 14 feet. This operation they call junking them; if they are not junked before fire is applied, they are much worse to junk afterwards. [letter dated Charlotte Town, Nov. 29, 1820, in "A Series of Letters Descriptive of Prince Edward Island," 1822]
early 15c., "to break off in small pieces" (intransitive, of stone); from Old English forcippian "to pare away by cutting, cut off," verbal form of cipp "small piece of wood" (see chip (n.1)).
Transitive meaning "to cut up, cut or trim into small pieces, diminish by cutting away a little at a time" is from late 15c. Sense of "break off fragments" is 18c. Related: Chipped; chipping. To chip in "contribute" (1861) is American English, perhaps from card-playing; but compare chop in "interrupt by remarking" (1540s). Chipped beef attested from 1826.
mid-14c., court, "short, concise, compressed," from Latin curtus "(cut) short, shortened, incomplete," from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut." Sense of "rude, tartly abrupt" is attested by 1831.
The Latin word was adopted early into most Germanic languages (compare Icelandic korta, German kurz, etc.) and drove out the native words based on Proto-Germanic *skurt-, but English retains short (adj.), which also has a secondary sense of "rudely abrupt." Related: Curtal.
late 14c., "a cutting away, mutilation," also, from 16c., "circumcision," from Late Latin concisionem (nominative concisio) "a separation into divisions, a mutilation," literally "a cutting up," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin concidere "to cut off, cut up, cut through, cut to pieces," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + caedere "to cut" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike"). From 18c. it began to be used in the sense of conciseness (q.v.).
Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision. For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh. [Philippians iii.2-3]
In Philippians iii.2 it translates Greek katatomē, a contemptuous substitution for the usual peritomē "circumcision," in reference to the Judaizing teachers who taught that Christian converts must first be circumcised.