Etymology
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South Africa 

1815 as a name for a distinct region that had been partly settled by Europeans; 1910 as the name of a nation.

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Appalachia 

"cultural and geographical region of inland Eastern U.S.," 1880s, from the Appalachian Mountains, which are its core. Earlier Appalachia was proposed as a better name for "United States of America" by Washington Irving in 1839 (though he preferred Alleghenia) and he may get the credit for coinage of the word (see America).

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know-nothing (n.)

1827, "ignoramus," from know (v.) + nothing. As a U.S. nativist political party, active 1853-56, the name refers to the secret society at the core of the party, about which members were instructed to answer, if asked about it, that they "know nothing." The party eventually merged into the Republican Party. Related: Know-nothingism.

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tanzanite (n.)

violet-blue gemstone, 1968, named by Henry B. Platt, vice president of Tiffany & Co., because the stone was discovered in the African nation of Tanzania.

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Montenegro 

Adriatic coastal nation, from Venetian Italian (Tuscan monte nero), literally "black mountain," a loan-translation of the local Slavonic name, Crnagora. Related: Montenegrine.

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Oman 

coastal nation in Arabia, supposedly named for its founder. Recorded from Roman times (Omana, in Pliny). Related: Omani.

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trans-national (adj.)

also transnational, 1884, "crossing a nation," from trans- + national (adj.). It is attested from 1921 as "extending or having interests beyond national frontiers." Related: Transnationally; transnationalism.

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expansionist (n.)

1874, American English, in reference to money policy; by 1884 as "one who advocates the expansion of the territory of his nation," from expansion + -ist. Related: Expansionism.

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kernel (n.)

"edible substance in a nut or the stone of a fruit," Old English cyrnel "seed, kernel, pip," from Proto-Germanic *kurnilo- (source also of Middle High German kornel "a grain," Middle Dutch cornel "coarse meal"), from the root of corn "seed, grain" (from PIE root *gre-no- "grain") + -el, diminutive suffix. Figurative sense of "core or central part of anything" is from 1550s.

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barbarian (adj.)

mid-14c., "foreign, of another nation or culture," from Medieval Latin barbarinus (see barbarian (n.)). The meaning "of or pertaining to savages, rude, uncivilized" is from 1590s.

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