Etymology
Advertisement
cross (adj.)

1520s, in part a shortening of across, in part from the adverb (see cross (adv.)). Earliest sense is "falling athwart, lying athwart the main direction, passing from side to side." Meaning "intersecting, lying athwart each other" is from c. 1600.

Sense of "adverse, opposed, obstructing, contrary, opposite" is from 1560s; of persons, "peevish, ill-tempered," from 1630s, probably from the earlier senses of "contrary, athwart," especially with reference to winds and sailing ships. A 19c. emphatic form was cross as two sticks (1807), punning on the verb. Cross-grained is from 1670s of wood; as "opposed in nature or temper" from 1640s.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
withers (n.)
1570s, probably from a dialectal survival of Old English wiðer "against, contrary, opposite" (see with) + plural suffix. Usually said to be so called because the withers are the parts of the animal that oppose the load. Compare German Widerrist "withers," from wider "against" + Rist "wrist."
Related entries & more 
antipathic (adj.)
"opposite, unlike, averse," 1811, in a translation of Swedenborg; see antipathy + -ic. Perhaps modeled on French antipathique. In later use it tends to be a medical word for "producing contrary symptoms," in place of antipathetic.
Related entries & more 
disaccord (v.)

late 14c., disacorden "be contrary; disagree, refuse assent," from Old French desacorder (12c., Modern French désaccorder), from des- "opposite of" (see dis-) + acorder "agree, be in harmony" (see accord (v.)). Related: Disaccorded; disaccording.

Related entries & more 
Contra (n.)

"anti-Sandinista Nicaraguan," 1981, short for Spanish contrarrevolucionario "counter-revolutionary" (n.); see contra-. Contra was earlier used as a noun in English, directly from Latin, in the senses of "a thing which is against another" (1778); "the contrary or opposite" (1640s). Related: Contras.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
converse (adj.)

"turned about, transposed, reciprocal," 1560s, originally mathematical, from Latin conversus "turned around," past participle of convertere "to turn about, turn around, transform," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). From 1794 as "opposite or contrary in direction." Related: Conversely.

Related entries & more 
antecedence (n.)

1650s, "fact or act of coming before (another or others) in time, place, or order," from Latin antecedens "a going before" (see antecedent). From 1660s in the specific sense in astronomy, "apparent contrary motion of a planet" (from east to west). Related: Antecedency (1590s).

Related entries & more 
opposite (adj.)

late 14c., "placed or situated on the other side of (something)," from Old French opposite, oposite "opposite, contrary" (13c.), from Latin oppositus "standing against, opposed, opposite," past participle of opponere "set against," from assimilated form of ob "in front of, in the way of" (see ob-) + ponere "to put, set, place" (see position (n.)).

The meaning "contrary in character, of a totally different nature" is from 1570s. As a noun from late 14c., "the opposite side of" (a place, the body, etc.), "an opposite position or condition." From early 15c. as "that which is opposite in character or quality;" also "an opponent." As a preposition from 1758. As an adverb from 1817. Related: Oppositely.

Related entries & more 
litotes (n.)
rhetorical figure in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary ("no laughing matter"), from Greek litotes "plainness, simplicity," from litos "smooth, plain," also "frugal, small, meager," and, of style, "simple, unadorned," from PIE root *(s)lei- "slimy, sticky, slippery" (hence "smooth"); see slime (n.).
Related entries & more 
dehortation (n.)

"dissuasion, advice or counsel to the contrary of what is proposed," 1520s, from Late Latin dehortationem (nominative dehortatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin dehortari "to dissuade," from de- "off, away" (see de-) + hortari "to exhort, urge, incite," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want."

Related entries & more 

Page 4