Etymology
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grant (v.)

in early use also graunt, early 13c., "to allow, permit (something); consent to (a prayer, request, etc.)," from Old French graanter, variant of creanter "assure, promise, guarantee, swear; confirm, authorize, approve (of)," from Latin credentem (nominative credens), present participle of credere "to believe, to trust" (see credo). From c. 1300 as "transfer possession of in any formal way." Meaning "admit to be true, acknowledge" in English is from c. 1300; hence to take (something) for granted "regard as not requiring proof" (1610s). The irregular change of -c- to -g- in Old French is perhaps from influence of garantir. Related: Granted; granting.

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agree (v.)

late 14c., "to give consent, assent," from Old French agreer "to please, satisfy; to receive with favor, take pleasure in" (12c.), a contraction of the phrase a gré "favorably, of good will," literally "to (one's) liking," or a like contraction in Medieval Latin. The French phrase is from a "to," from Latin ad (see ad-) + Old French gre, gret "that which pleases," from Latin gratum, neuter of gratus "pleasing, welcome, agreeable" (from suffixed form of PIE root *gwere- (2) "to favor").

In Middle English it also meant "to please, gratify, satisfy," a sense preserved in agreeable. Of parties, "come to agreement; make a settlement," mid-15c.; the meaning "to be in harmony in opinions" is from late 15c. Of things, "to coincide," from 1520s. To agree to differ is from 1785 (also agree to disagree, 1792). Related: Agreed; agreeing.

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concession (n.)

mid-15c., "act of granting or yielding" (especially in argumentation), from Old French concession (14c.) or directly from Latin concessionem (nominative concessio) "an allowing, conceding," noun of action from past-participle stem of concedere "to give way, yield," figuratively "agree, consent, give precedence," from con-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + cedere "to go, grant, give way" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield").

From 1610s as "the thing or point yielded." Meaning "property granted by government" is from 1650s. Sense of "grant of privilege by a government to individuals to engage in some enterprise" is from 1856, from a sense in French. Hence the meaning "grant or lease of a small part of a property for some specified purpose" (1897), the sense in concession stand "snack bar, refreshment stand."

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courtesy (n.)

c. 1200, curteisie, "courtly ideals; chivalry, chivalrous conduct; elegance of manners, politeness," also "a courteous act, act of civility or respect," from Old French curteisie, cortoisie "courtliness, noble sentiments; courteousness; generosity" (Modern French courtoisie), from curteis "courteous" (see courteous).

From c. 1300 as "good will, kindness," also "a reward, a gift;" mid-14c. as "refinement, gentlemanly conduct." A specialized sense of curteisie is the source of English curtsy. A courtesy title (1829) is one to which one has no valid claim but which is assumed or given by popular consent. Courtesy call "visit made for the sake of politeness" is by 1898.

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par (n.)

1620s, "equality in value or circumstances," also "value of one currency in terms of another," from Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched," also as a noun, "that which is equal, equality," a word of unknown and disputed origin. De Vaan is noncommittal. Watkins suggests perhaps from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot," with suggestion of reciprocality. Another guess connects it with PIE root *per- (5) "to traffic in, sell" (on notion of "give equal value for"). Meaning "a standard fixed by consent or by natural conditions, average or usual amount" is first attested 1767. Golf sense is attested by 1898, which led to the figurative use of par for the course for "fairly normal, what can be expected" (by 1928).

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racism (n.)

by 1928, in common use from 1935, originally in a European context, "racial supremacy as a doctrine, the theory that human characteristics and abilities are determined by race;" see racist, and compare the various senses in race (n.2) and racialism. Applied to American social systems from late 1930s.

This meaning of Nationalism in no sense implies any consent to the doctrine of Racism, which holds that unity of racial origin is the main principle of unity for civil society and that the members of each ethnical branch should properly aim at grouping themselves together into so many national States. Although it is desirable that strongly-felt national aspirations, which often depend on community of race, should be satisfied, as far as this may be compatible with justice, Racism or the Principle of Racial Self determination, as it has been called in recent years is a materialistic illusion contrary to natural law and destructive of civilisation. [James Strachey Barnes, "The Universal Aspects of Fascism," London, 1928]
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condition (n.)

mid-14c., condicioun, "particular mode of being of a person or thing," also "a requisite or prerequisite, a stipulation," from Old French condicion "stipulation; state; behavior; social status" (12c., Modern French condition), from Medieval Latin conditionem (nominative conditio), properly condicio "agreement; stipulation; the external position, situation, rank, place, circumstances" of persons, "situation, condition, nature, manner" of things, from condicere "to speak with, talk together, agree upon," in Late Latin "consent, assent," from assimilated form of com "together" (see con-) + dicere "to speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

Classical Latin condicio was confused in Late Latin with conditio "a making," from conditus, past participle of condere "to put together." The sense evolution in Latin apparently was from "stipulation" to "situation, mode of being."

Meaning "rank or state with respect to ordered society" is from late 14c. in English. From the notion of "prerequisite" comes the sense of "a restricting or limiting circumstance" (late 14c.). Also in Middle English "personal character, disposition" (mid-14c.).

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marshal (n.)

mid-13c., "high officer of the royal court," charged with regulating ceremonies and maintaining order (early 13c. as a surname), from Old French mareschal "commanding officer of an army; officer in charge of a household" (Modern French maréchal), originally "stable officer, horse tender, groom" (Frankish Latin mariscaluis) from Frankish *marhskalk or a similar Germanic word, literally "horse-servant" (compare Old High German marahscalc "groom," Middle Dutch maerschalc).

This is from a Proto-Germanic compound of *markhaz "horse" (see mare (n.1)) + *skalkaz "servant" (source of Old English scealc "servant, retainer, member of a crew," Dutch schalk "rogue, wag," Gothic skalks "servant"). It corresponds to Old English horsþegn.

From early 14c. as "military commander, general in the army."  In the U.S., a civil officer appointed by the president (with advice and consent of the Senate) in each judicial district as the executive officer of the Supreme Court and the federal courts in his district. For sense development and the tendency of officers of the stable to become chief officers of royal households, compare constable. Also from Germanic are Italian scalco "steward," Spanish mariscal "marshal."

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