Etymology
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Melba 

in various food preparations, especially peach Melba (by 1905) and Melba toast (by 1913) is in honor of Nellie Melba, stage name (based on her hometown of Melbourne, Australia) of Australian-born operatic soprano Helen Mitchell (1861-1931).

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eucalyptus (n.)

evergreen genus of Australia, 1789, from Modern Latin, coined 1788 by French botanist Charles Louis L'héritier de Brutelle (1746-1800) from Greek eu "well" (see eu-) + kalyptos "covered" (from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save"); so called for the covering on the bud.

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common (n.)
Origin and meaning of common

c. 1300, "a fellowship or brotherhood; early 14c., "people of a community or town, freemen, citizenry;" late 15c., "land held in common," from Old French commune and Medieval Latin communia, and partly from common (adj.). Also compare commons. Latin communis "common, general" (adj.) also served as a noun meaning "common property; state, commonwealth."

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Oz 

mythical land in L. Frank Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" (1900) and sequels; according to an anecdote written by Baum in 1903, inspired by a three-drawer desktop cabinet letter file, the last drawer labeled O-Z. As Australian slang for "Australia," attested by 1983.

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claim (n.)

early 14c., "a demand of a right; right of claiming," from Old French claime "claim, complaint," from clamer (see claim (v.)). Meaning "thing claimed or demanded" is from 1792; specifically "piece of land allotted and taken" (chiefly U.S. and Australia, in reference to mining); claim-jumper is attested from 1839. Insurance sense "application for guaranteed compensation" is from 1878.

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crawl (n.)

1818, "act of crawling," from crawl (v.). In the swimming sense from 1903; the stroke was developed by Frederick Cavill, well-known English swimmer who emigrated to Australia and modified the standard stroke of the day after observing South Seas islanders. So called because the swimmer's motion in the water resembles crawling. Meaning "slow progress from one drinking place to another" is by 1883.

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*aus- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine," especially of the dawn. It forms all or part of: austral; Australia; Austria; Austro-; Aurora; east; Easter; eastern; eo-; Ostrogoth.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit usah "dawn;" Greek ēōs "dawn;" Latin Aurora "goddess of dawn," auster "south wind;" Lithuanian aušra "dawn;" Old English east "east."

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monotreme (n.)

"animal of the lowest order of mammals," native to Australia and New Zealand, which have one opening for the genital, urinary, and digestive organs, 1833, from Monotremata, the order name, Modern Latin, neuter plural of monotrematus, from Greek monos "single, alone" (see mono-) + stem of trēma "perforation, hole, opening; eye of a needle, dot on dice," related to tetrainein "to bore through, perforate" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). Related: Monotrematous.

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republic (n.)

"state in which supreme or executive power rests in the people via representatives chosen by citizens entitled to vote," c. 1600, from French république (15c.), from Latin respublica (ablative republica) "the common weal, a commonwealth, state, republic," literally res publica "public interest, the state," from res "affair, matter, thing" (see re) + publica, fem. of publicus "public" (see public (adj.)).

Applied to particular states so constituted by 1630s. The notion of "community in which there is a certain equality of members" is behind such expressions as republic of letters "collective body of those engaged in literary pursuits," attested from 1702.

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Kiribati 

island nation in the Pacific, formerly Gilbert Islands and named for Capt. Thomas Gilbert, who arrived there 1788 after helping transport the first shipload of convicts to Australia. At independence in 1979 it took the current name, which represents the local pronunciation of Gilbert. Christmas Island, named for the date it was discovered by Europeans, is in the chain and now goes by Kiritimati, likewise a local pronunciation of the English name.

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