Etymology
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refutation (n.)

1540s, refutacion, "act of disproving; overthrowing of an argument" (by countervailing argument or proof), from French réfutation (16c.) and directly from Latin refutationem (nominative refutatio) "disproof of a claim or argument," noun of action from past-participle stem of refutare ""drive back; rebut, disprove" (see refute).

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expostulate (v.)

1530s, "to demand, to claim," from Latin expostulatus, past participle of expostulare "to demand urgently, remonstrate, find fault, dispute, complain of, demand the reason (for someone's conduct)," from ex "from" (see ex-) + postulare "to demand" (see postulate (v.)). Friendlier sense of "to reason earnestly (with someone) against a course of action, etc." is first recorded in English 1570s. Related: Expostulated; expostulating.

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aubaine (n.)
"right of French kings to claim the property of a non-naturalized stranger who dies in their realm," 1727, from French (droit d'aubaine), from aubain "stranger, non-naturalized foreigner" (12c.), which is of unknown origin; perhaps from Medieval Latin Albanus, but the sense is obscure. Klein suggests Frankish *alibanus, literally "belonging to another ban." Abolished 1819.
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prospect (v.)

"explore for gold or other minerals, examine land with a view to a mining claim," 1841, from prospect (n.) in specialized sense of "spot giving prospects of ore" (1832). Earlier in a now-obsolete sense of "look forth, look out over" (1550s), from Latin prospectare, frequentative of prospicere. Related: Prospected; prospecting.

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expropriate (v.)

"to hold no longer as one's own, give up a claim to the exclusive property of," 1610s, back-formation from expropriation, or from earlier adjective (mid-15c.), or from Medieval Latin expropriatus, past participle of expropriare "deprive of property, deprive of one's own," from ex "away from" (see ex-) + propriare "take as one's own," from proprius "one's own" (see proper). Related: Expropriated; expropriating.

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proclaim (v.)

"make known by public announcement, promulgate," especially by herald or crier, late 14c., proclamen, from Latin proclamare "cry or call out," from pro "forth" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + clamare "to cry out" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout"). Spelling altered by influence of claim. Related: Proclaimed; proclaiming; proclaimer.

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Ishmael 
masc. proper name, biblical son of Abraham and Hagar, driven into the wilderness with his mother, from Hebrew Yishma'el, literally "God hears," from yishma, imperfective of shama "he heard." The Arabs claim descent from him. Figurative sense of "an outcast," "whose hand is against every man, and every man's hand against him" is from Genesis xvi.12. Related: Ishmaelite.
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postulate (v.)

1530s, "nominate to a church office," from Medieval Latin postulatus, past participle of postulare "to ask, demand; claim; require," probably formed from past participle of Latin poscere "ask urgently, demand," from *posk-to-, Italic inchoative of PIE root *prek- "to ask questions." The meaning in logic, "lay down as something which has to be assumed although it cannot be proved" dates from 1640s, from a sense in Medieval Latin.

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arrogant (adj.)
"disposed to give oneself undue importance, aggressively haughty," late 14c., from Old French arrogant (14c.), from Latin arrogantem (nominative arrogans) "assuming, overbearing, insolent," present participle of arrogare "to claim for oneself, assume," from ad "to" (see ad-) + rogare "to ask, entreat, request," apparently a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from root *reg- "move in a straight line." Related: Arrogantly.
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abandonment (n.)
1610s, "action of relinquishing to another," from French abandonnement (Old French abandonement), from abandonner "to give up" (see abandon (v.)). Meaning "a deserting, forsaking" (of one's family, principles, etc.) is by 1788; from 1839 as "condition of being forsaken." In law, the relinquishing of a title, privilege, or claim. In music, Italian abbandonatamente is the instruction to play so as to make the time subordinate to the feeling.
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