Etymology
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hormone (n.)
"organic compound produced in animal bodies to regulate activity and behavior," 1905, from Greek hormon "that which sets in motion," present participle of horman "impel, urge on," from horme "onset, impulse," from PIE *or-sma-, from root *er- (1) "to move, set in motion." Used by Hippocrates to denote a vital principle; modern scientific meaning coined by English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927). Jung used horme (1915) in reference to hypothetical mental energy that drives unconscious activities and instincts. Related: Hormones.
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encounter (n.)

c. 1300, "meeting of adversaries, confrontation," from Old French encontre "meeting; fight; opportunity" (12c.), noun use of preposition/adverb encontre "against, counter to" from Late Latin incontra "in front of," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + contra "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)). Modern use of the word in psychology is from 1967, from the work of U.S. psychologist Carl Rogers. Encounter group attested from 1967.

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malic (adj.)

"pertaining to apples, obtained from the juice of apples," 1790 (in malic acid, in a translation of Fourcroy), from French malique, from Latin mālum "apple" from Greek mēlon (Doric malon) "apple," which is probably from the Pre-Greek substrate language. The Latin and Greek words also meant "fruit" generally, especially if exotic. The acid, discovered 1785 by Swedish/German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, was obtained from unripe apples and other fruits. 

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creosote (n.)

substance prepared from wood-tar, 1835, from German Kreosot, coined 1832 by its discoverer, German-born natural philosopher Carl Ludwig, Baron Reichenbach, from Greek kreo-, combining form of kreas "flesh" (from PIE root *kreue- "raw flesh") + soter "preserver," from soizein "save, preserve" (perhaps from PIE root *teue- "to swell"). So called because it was used as an antiseptic and to preserve meat. The creosote-bush (1851) is so called for its smell.

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archetype (n.)

"model, first form, original pattern from which copies are made," 1540s [Barnhart] or c. 1600 [OED], from Latin archetypum, from Greek arkhetypon "pattern, model, figure on a seal," neuter of adjective arkhetypos "first-moulded," from arkhē "beginning, origin, first place" (verbal noun of arkhein "to be the first;" see archon) + typos "model, type, blow, mark of a blow" (see type).

The Jungian psychology sense of "pervasive idea or image from the collective unconscious" is from 1919. Jung defined archetypal images as "forms or images of a collective nature which occur practically all over the earth as constituents of myths and at the same time as autochthonous individual products of unconscious origin." ["Psychology and Religion" 1937]

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personality (n.)

late 14c., personalite, "quality or fact of being a person," from Old French personalité and directly from Medieval Latin personalitatem (nominative personalitas), from Late Latin personalis (see personal). Sense of "a distinctive essential character of a self-conscious being" is recorded by 1795, from French personnalité.

Personality is the supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being. It is an act of courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal conditions of existence, coupled with the greatest possible freedom of self-determination. [C.G. Jung, "The Development of Personality," 1932]

Meaning "person whose character stands out from that of others" is from 1889. Personality cult "devotion to a leader encouraged on the basis of aspects of his personality, rather than ideological or political considerations," is attested by 1956.

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aniline (n.)

chemical base used in making colorful dyes, 1843, coined 1841 by German chemist Carl Julius Fritzsche and adopted by Hofmann, ultimately from Portuguese anil "the indigo shrub," from Arabic an-nil "the indigo," assimilated from al-nil (with Arabic definite article al-), from Persian nila, ultimately from Sanskrit nili "indigo," from nilah "dark blue."

With suffix -ine indicating "derived substance" (see -ine (1); also see -ine (2) for the later, more precise, use of the suffix in chemistry). Discovered in 1826 in indigo and at first called crystallin; it became commercially important in 1856 when mauve dye was made from it. As an adjective from 1860.

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praseodymium (n.)

rare metallic element, 1885, coined in Modern Latin by discoverer Carl Auer von Welsbach (1858-1929) from Greek prasios "leek-green" (from prason "leek;" traditionally identified with Latin porrum "leek," which suggests a PIE *prso-) + didymos "double" (from PIE root *dwo- "two").

The name didymia was given to an earth in 1840, so called because it was a "twin" to lanthana. When didymia was further analyzed in the 1880s, it was found to have several components, one of which was characterized by green salts and named accordingly, with the elemental suffix -ium.

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corn-dog (n.)

"frankfurter dipped in cornmeal batter, fried, and served on a stick," 1949, American English; see corn (n.1) + hot dog. Said to have been introduced by Vaudeville performers Neil and Carl Fletcher in 1942 at the Texas State Fair.

Be the first to serve this delicious new sandwich. No special ingredients needed. Cooks 1 to 4 sandwiches at a time in 5 minutes. Costs only 5 ¢ each to make—sells for 15 ¢ to 20 ¢ apiece. Recipe and instructions shipped with oven. [advertisement for Dixie Corn Dog Ovens in The Billboard, Feb. 26, 1949]
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homosexual (adj.)

1892, in C.G. Chaddock's translation of Krafft-Ebing's "Psychopathia Sexualis," from German homosexual, homosexuale (by 1880, in Gustav Jäger), from Greek homos "same" (see homo- (1)) + Latin-based sexual.

'Homosexual' is a barbarously hybrid word, and I claim no responsibility for it. It is, however, convenient, and now widely used. 'Homogenic' has been suggested as a substitute. [H. Havelock Ellis, "Studies in Psychology," 1897]

Sexual inversion (1883, later simply inversion, by 1895) was an earlier clinical term for "homosexuality" in English, said by Ellis to have originated in Italian psychology writing. See also uranian. Unnatural love was used 18c.-19c. for homosexuality as well as pederasty and incest. In 17c.-18c., pathic was used as a noun and adjective in reference to a man that submits to sexual intercourse with another man. Related: Homosexually.

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