Etymology
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Moscow 

Russian capital, named for the Moskva River, the name of which is of unknown origin. Moscow mule vodka cocktail is attested from 1950.

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Saigon 

southern Vietnamese city, capital of former South Vietnam, named for its river, which bears a name of uncertain origin.

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Lisbon 

capital of Portugal, Portuguese Lisboa, perhaps from a Phoenician word; the derivation from Ulysses probably is folk-etymology.

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Muscat 

capital of Oman, from Arabic Masqat, said to mean "hidden" (it is isolated from the interior by hills).

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necking (n.)

"embracing and caressing a member of the opposite sex," 1825; see neck (v.). In architecture, "moldings near the capital of a column."

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Tokyo 

so named 1868, from Japanese to "east" + kyo "capital;" its earlier name was Edo, literally "estuary."

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gammadion (n.)

ornamental figure formed of four capital gammas, Medieval Greek gammadion, diminutive of Greek gamma (see gamma).

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Constantinople 

from 330 C.E. to 1930 the name of what is now Istanbul and formerly was Byzantium, the city on the European side of the Bosphorus that served as the former capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, from Greek Konstantinou polis "Constantine's city," named for Roman emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (see Constantine), who transferred the Roman capital there.

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Oslo 

Norwegian capital city, a name probably based on Old Norse os "estuary, river mouth," in reference to the place's situation.

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Ottawa 

Canadian capital, founded 1827 as Bytown, named for English officer John By, who oversaw construction of the canal there; renamed 1854, when it became capital, for the Ottawa River, which took its name from the Algonquian people who lived in Michigan and Ontario. Their name is said to be from adawe "to trade."

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