Etymology
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valence (n.)
early 15c., "extract, preparation," from Latin valentia "strength, capacity," from valentem (nominative valens) "strong, stout, vigorous, powerful," present participle of valere "be strong" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong"). Chemistry sense of "relative combining capacity of an element with other atoms when forming compounds or molecules" is recorded from 1884, from German Valenz (1868), from the Latin word. Related: Valency.
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module (n.)

1580s, "allotted measure," a sense now obsolete, from French module (1540s) or directly from Latin modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures").

Sense of "a standard measure to regulate proportions" is from 1620s. Meaning "interchangeable part" is recorded by 1955, via the notion of "length chosen as the basis for the dimensions of parts of a building, etc." (1936); that of "separate section of a spacecraft" is from 1961.

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under-employed (adj.)
1908, "not used to optimum capacity," originally in reference to working persons, from under + past participle of employ (v.).
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capacitor (n.)
"device which stores electricity," 1926, from capacity, in reference to electrical conductors, with Latinate agent-noun ending.
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capacitate (v.)
1650s, "make capable; furnish with legal powers," from Latin capacitas (see capacity) + -ate (2). Related: Capacitation.
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*me- (2)
*mē-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to measure." Some words may belong instead to root *med- "to take appropriate measures."

It forms all or part of: amenorrhea; centimeter; commensurate; diameter; dimension; gematria; geometry; immense; isometric; meal (n.1) "food, time for eating;" measure; menarche; meniscus; menopause; menses; menstrual; menstruate; mensural; meter (n.1) "poetic measure;" meter (n.2) unit of length; meter (n.3) "device for measuring;" -meter; Metis; metric; metrical; metronome; -metry; Monday; month; moon; parameter; pentameter; perimeter; piecemeal; semester; symmetry; thermometer; trigonometry; trimester.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit mati "measures," matra "measure;" Avestan, Old Persian ma- "to measure;" Greek metron "measure," metra "lot, portion;" Latin metri "to measure."
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modulate (v.)

1610s, in music, "vary or inflect the sound of," especially to give expressiveness, "vary the pitch of," back-formation from modulation, or else from Latin modulatus, past participle of modulari "regulate, measure off properly, measure rhythmically; play, play upon," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures").

General sense of "modify, adjust, adapt, regulate in measure or proportion" is from 1620s. The intransitive musical sense of "pass from one key to another, or between major and minor" is attested by 1721. In telecommunications from 1908. Meaning "exert a controlling influence on, regulate" is by 1964. Related: Modulated; modulating.

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intellect (n.)
"the sum of the cognitive facilities (except sense or sense and imagination), the capacity for reasoning truth," late 14c. (but little used before 16c.), from Old French intellect "intellectual capacity" (13c.), and directly from Latin intellectus "discernment, a perception, understanding," noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence). The Latin word was used to translate Greek nous "mind, thought, intellect" in Aristotle.
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spirometer (n.)
contrivance for measuring lung capacity, 1846, formed irregularly from Latin spirare "to breathe" (see spirit (n.)) + -meter. Related: Spirometry.
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metric (n.)

"science of versification," 1760, from Latinized form of Greek he metrikē "prosody," plural of metron "meter, a verse; that by which anything is measured; measure, length, size, limit, proportion" (from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure"). Middle English had metrik "the branch of music which deals with measure or time" (late 15c.), from Medieval Latin metricus.

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