Etymology
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dateline (n.)

also date-line, 1880 as an imaginary line down the Pacific Ocean on which the calendar day begins and ends, from date (n.1) + line (n.). Never set by any treaty or international organization, it is an informal construct meant to coincide with a line 180 degrees (12 hours) from Greenwich, but it always has followed a more or less crooked course.

Meaning "line of text that tells the date and place of origin of a newspaper, article, telegram, etc." is by 1888.

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bissextile 

1580s (n.); 1590s (adj.), in reference to Roman leap year, from Late Latin (annus) bisextilis "leap year," more literally "the twice sixth-day, (a year) containing a second sixth (day)." To keep the Julian calendar consistent with the sun, the sixth day (by inclusive reckoning) before the Calends of March was doubled every four years. The date corresponds to our February 24th. From Latin bissextus/bisextis (dies), from bis "twice" (see bis-) + sextus "sixth (day before the First of March)," from sex "six" (see six).

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legem pone (n.)
"payment of money, cash down," 1570s, old slang, from the title in the Anglican prayer-book of the psalm appointed for Matins on the 25th of the month; it was consequently associated especially with March 25, the new year of the old calendar and a quarter day, when payments and debts came due and money changed hands generally. The title is from the first two words of the fifth division of Psalm cxix: Legem pone mihi, Domine, viam justificationum tuarum "Teach me, O Lord, the way of thy statutes."
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werewolf (n.)
late Old English werewulf "person with the power to turn into a wolf," from wer "man, male person" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man") + wulf (see wolf (n.); also see here for a short discussion of the mythology). Belief in them was widespread in the Middle Ages. Similar formation in Middle Dutch weerwolf, Old High German werwolf, Swedish varulf. In the ancient Persian calendar, the eighth month (October-November) was Varkazana-, literally "(Month of the) Wolf-Men."
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canicular (adj.)
late 14c., in caniculer dayes, the "dog days" around mid-August, from Latin canicularis "pertaining to the dog days or the Dog Star," from canicula "little dog," also "the Dog Star," diminutive of canis "a dog" (from PIE root *kwon- "dog"). In literal use ("pertaining to a dog") historically only as attempt at humor.

Also see Sirius, and compare heliacal. The ancient Egyptian canicular year was computed from the heliacal rising of Sirius; the canicular cycle of 1,461 years is how long it would take a given day to pass through all seasons in an uncorrected calendar.
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conception (n.)
Origin and meaning of conception

early 14c., "act of conceiving in the womb," from Old French concepcion (Modern French conception) "conception, grasp, comprehension," from Latin conceptionem (nominative conceptio) "a comprehending, conception," noun of action from past-participle stem of concipere "to take in and hold; become pregnant," from con-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see con-), + combining form of capere"to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").

Originally of pregnancy (also with reference to Conception Day in the Church calendar); mental sense of "process of forming concepts, act or power of conceiving in the mind" is from late 14c. Meaning "that which is conceived in the mind" is from 1520s; that of "general notion" is from 1785.

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July 

seventh month, c. 1050, Iulius, from Anglo-French julie, Old French Juil, Jule (Modern French uses a diminutive, Juillet) and directly from Latin Iulius "fifth month of the Roman calendar" (which began its year in March), renamed after his death and deification in honor of Gaius Julius Caesar, who was born in this month. In republican Rome it had been Quintilis, literally "fifth." Compare August. Accented on the first syllable in English until 18c.; "the modern Eng. pronunciation is abnormal and unexplained" [OED]. Replaced Old English liða se æfterra "later mildness," from liðe "mild."

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epact (n.)
1550s, "a number attached to a year to show the number of days into the calendar moon on which the solar year begins;" 1580s, "number of days by which the solar year exceeds a lunar one of 12 moons;" from French épacte (12c.), from Late Latin epacta "an intercalary day," from Greek epakte (plural epaktai, in epaktai hemerai "intercalary days"), from fem. of epaktos "brought in, imported, alien," verbal adjective of epagein "to add, bring forward," also "intercalate," from epi "on" (see epi-) + agein "put in motion, move; push forward, advance," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move." Related: Epactal.
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gamete (n.)
"sexual protoplasmic body," 1880, coined 1878 by German cytologist Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912), the widespread attribution of the word's coinage to Mendel being apparently erroneous. From Greek gamete "a wife," gametes "a husband," from gamein "to take to wife, to marry," from PIE root *gem(e)- "to marry" (source also of Greek gambros "son-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law;" Sanskrit jamih "brother, sister," jama daughter-in-law;" Avestan zama-tar "son-in-law;" Latin gener "son-in-law"). See also -gamy. The seventh month of the ancient Attic calendar (corresponding to late January and early February) was Gamelion, "Month of Marriages." Related: Gametal.
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August 
eighth month, late 11c., from Latin Augustus (mensis), sixth month of the later Roman calendar, renamed from Sextilis (literally "sixth") in 8 B.C.E. to honor emperor Augustus Caesar, literally "Venerable Caesar" (see august (adj.), and compare Augustus). One of two months given new names to honor Roman leaders (July being the other), the Romans also gave new imperial names to September (Germanicus) and October (Domitian) but these did not stick.

In England, the name replaced native Weodmonað "weed month." Traditionally the first month of autumn in Great Britain, the last of summer in the U.S.
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