advance (n.)

c. 1300, "boasting, ostentation" (senses now archaic), from advance (v.). Attested from early 15c. as "advancement in rank, wealth, etc.;" the physical sense of "state of being in front" is from 1660s; that of "a move forward or toward the front" is from 1670s. The commercial sense of "something given beforehand" is from 1680s (earlier in this sense was advancement, 1640s). The meaning "military signal to advance" is by 1849. Also "an act of approach" (1670s), hence advances "amorous overtures" (1706).

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address (n.)

1530s, "dutiful or courteous approach," from address (v.) and from French adresse (13c., from the verb in French). The meaning "power of directing one's actions and conduct" is from 1590s; that of "act or manner of speaking to" is from 1670s. The sense of "formal speech to an audience" (Gettysburg Address, etc.) is from 1751. Sense of "superscription of a letter" (guiding it to its destination) is from 1712 and led to the meaning "place of residence" (by c. 1816). The transferred use in computer programming is from 1948. Middle English had a noun addressing "control, correction" (late 14c.).

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mannequin (n.)

1902, "model to display clothes," from French mannequin (15c.), from Dutch manneken "model of the human figure used by artists," literally "little man" (see manikin). A French form of the same word that yielded manikin, and sometimes mannequin was used in English in a sense "artificial man" (especially in translations of Hugo). Originally of persons, in a sense where we might use "model." Later (by 1931) of artificial human model figures to display clothing.

A mannequin is a good-looking, admirably formed young lady, whose mission is to dress herself in her employer's latest "creations," and to impart to them the grace which only perfect forms can give. Her grammar may be bad, and her temper worse, but she must have the chic the Parisienne possesses, no matter whether she hails from the aristocratic Faubourg St. Germain or from the Faubourg Montmartre. ["The Bystander," Aug. 15, 1906]
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become (v.)

Middle English bicomen, from Old English becuman "happen, come about, befall," also "meet with, fall in with; arrive, approach, enter," from Proto-Germanic *bikweman (source also of Dutch bekomen, Old High German biqueman "obtain," German bekommen, Gothic biquiman). A compound of the sources of be- and come (v.).

It drove out Old English weorðan "to befall." The older sense is preserved in what has become of it? The meaning "change from one state of existence to another" is from 12c. The meaning "to look well, suit or be suitable to" is by early 14c., from the earlier sense of "to agree with, be fitting or proper" (early 13c.).

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plesiosaurus (n.)

extinct gigantic long-necked marine reptile, 1825, from Modern Latin Pleisiosaurus (1821), coined by English paleontologist William Daniel Conybeare (1787-1857) from Greek plēsios "near" (related to pelas "near, nearby," and probably from PIE *pelh- "to approach") + sauros "lizard" (see -saurus). It was one of the earliest "antediluvian" reptile fossils discovered in the scientific age and was so called for being more like a modern lizard than the ichthyosaur fossils that had been found a few years earlier in the same rock in England.

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accessory (n.)

also accessary, early 15c., "that which is subordinate to something else," also as a legal term, "one aiding in a felony without committing the offense" (as by advising, inciting, concealing), from Late Latin accessorius, from Latin accessor, agent noun of accedere "to approach" (see accede).

Strictly the noun (a person) should be accessary, the adj. (and noun, a thing) accessory; but the distinction is too fine to be maintained. [Century Dictionary]

Especially in the visual arts, "object introduced to balance composition or enhance artistic effect" (1540s). Attested from 1896 as "woman's smaller articles of dress;" hence accessorize. Related: Accessorial.

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jib (n.)

"large, triangular foresail of a ship," 1660s, gibb, of uncertain origin. Perhaps related to gibbet on the notion of a sail "hanging" from a masthead [Barnhart, OED]; and compare gib "projecting arm of a crane." Or perhaps from the nautical verb jib, jibe "shift a sail or boom to the other side" (1690s), from Dutch gijben, gijpen "turn suddenly" (of sails), which is apparently related to gijk "boom or spar of a sailing ship."

An observant sailor watching a strange vessel approach at sea judges her character by the condition of the jibs; hence cut of (one's) jib "personal appearance" (1821). Related: Jib-boom (1748). The jib in jib-door "door flush with a wall" (1792) is of uncertain origin and probably is not the same word.

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present (v.)

c. 1300, presenten, "bring into the presence of, introduce (someone or something) formally or ceremonially;" also "make a formal presentation of; give as a gift or award; bestow; approach with a gift, bring or lay before one for acceptance," from Old French presenter (11c., Modern French présenter) and directly from Latin praesentare "to place before, show, exhibit," from stem of praesens (see present (adj.)).

From late 14c. as "exhibit (something), demonstrate, reveal, offer for inspection, display;" also, in law, "accuse to the authorities, make a formal complaint or charge of wrongdoing." From c. 1400 as "represent, portray." Related: Presented; presenting. To present arms "bring the firearm to a perpendicular position in front of the body" is by 1759.

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shy (adj.)

Middle English shei, "easily frightened or startled," from late Old English sceoh "timid, easily startled," from Proto-Germanic *skeukh(w)az "afraid" (source also of Middle Low German schüwe, Dutch schuw, German scheu "shy;" Old High German sciuhen, German scheuchen "to scare away"). Cognates outside Germanic are uncertain, unless perhaps in Old Church Slavonic shchuti "to hunt, incite." Italian schivare "to avoid," Old French eschiver "to shun" are Germanic loan-words.

The meaning "shrinking from contact with others, difficult of approach because of timidity" is by c. 1600. The meaning "lacking, short of" is from 1895, American English gambling slang. As the last element of a compound (gun-shy, etc.) "frightened, averse, reluctant," by 1849.

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push (v.)

c. 1300, pushen, "to shove, move onward, strike with a thrusting motion, thrust forcibly against for the purpose of impelling," from Old French poulser (Modern French pousser), from Latin pulsare "to beat, strike, push," frequentative of pellere (past participle pulsus) "to push, drive, beat" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive").

Transitive meaning "urge, incite, press" is by 1570s; that of "promote, advance or extend by persistence or diligent effort" is from 1714; intransitive sense of "make one's way with force and persistence (against obstacles, etc.)" is by 1718. The meaning "approach a certain age" is from 1937. For palatization of -s-, OED compares brush (n.1); quash. Related: Pushed; pushing.

To push (someone) around "bully, browbeat, domineer" is by 1923. To push (one's) luck is from 1754. To push the envelope in the figurative sense is by late 1980s.

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