Etymology
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arroyo (n.)

"watercourse, dry stream bed," 1845, a California word, from American Spanish, in Spanish, "rivulet, small stream," perhaps from Latin arrugia "shaft or pit in a gold mine," which is apparently a compound of ad "to" (see ad-) + ruga "a wrinkle" (see rugae).

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spline (n.)
long, thin piece of wood or metal, 1756, from East Anglian dialect, of uncertain origin. Perhaps from older Danish splind or North Frisian splinj. Especially one fitted into a groove on a wheel and a shaft to keep them revolving together (1864).
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butte (n.)
"conspicuous elevation," especially a steep-sided one notable in its isolation, 1805, American English, from French butte, from Old French but "mound, knoll; target to shoot at" (see butt (n.3)). A relic of the French exploration of the upper Missouri region, introduced in English in Lewis & Clark's journals.
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fag (n.1)
British slang for "cigarette" (originally, especially, the butt of a smoked cigarette), 1888, probably from fag "loose piece, last remnant of cloth" (late 14c., as in fag-end "extreme end, loose piece," 1610s), which perhaps is related to fag (v.), which could make it a variant of flag (v.).
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atelier (n.)
"workshop," especially the workroom or studio of a sculptor or painter, 1840, from French atelier "workshop," from Old French astelier "(carpenter's) workshop, woodpile" (14c.), from astele "piece of wood, a shaving, splinter," which is probably from Late Latin hastella "a thin stick," diminutive of hasta "spear, shaft" (see yard (n.2)).
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abut (v.)
Origin and meaning of abut

mid-13c., "to end at, to border on, touch at the end," from Old French aboter, abuter "join end to end, touch with an end" (13c.), and abouter "join end to end," from à "to" (see ad-) + boter, bouter "to strike, push," from a Germanic source (ultimately from PIE root *bhau- "to strike"). Compare butt (v.). Related: Abutted; abutting.

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coe (n.)

"hut built by miners over a mine shaft," to store their equipment, etc., 1650s, from some source akin to Dutch kouw, German kaue in the same sense, from West Germanic *kauja-, an early borrowing of Latin cavea "hollow," from cavus "a hollow" (from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole").

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turbot (n.)
large, edible flatfish, c. 1300, from Old French turbut (12c., Modern French turbot), probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Swedish törnbut, from törn "thorn" + but "flatfish;" see butt (n.4) and compare halibut). But OED says of uncertain origin and speculates on a connection to Latin turbo "spinning top."
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crantara (n.)

"The fiery cross which in old times formed the rallying symbol in the Highlands of Scotland in any sudden emergency," Gaelic cranntara, cranntaraidh, also (by influence of crois "cross") croistara, croistaraidh, literally "the beam or cross of reproach," from crann "a beam, a shaft" (see crane (n.)) + tair "reproach, disgrace." "[S]o called because neglect of the symbol implied infamy" [Century Dictionary].

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pistol (n.)

"small firearm with a curved handle, intended to be held in one hand when aimed and fired," 1570s, from French pistole "short firearm" (1566), a word of uncertain origin, sometimes said to be from German Pistole, from Czech pis'tala "firearm," literally "tube, pipe," from pisteti "to whistle," a word of imitative origin, related to Russian pischal "shepherd's pipe."

But the earlier English form pistolet (1550) is said to be from French pistolet "a small firearm," also "a small dagger," which is said to be connected with Italian pistolese, in reference to Pistoia, the town in Tuscany noted for gunsmithing.

Pistol-whip (v.) "strike (someone) with the butt of a pistol is recorded by 1942. Pistol-grip "handle shaped like the butt of a pistol" is by 1874.

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