Etymology
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Bacchae (n.)
"female attendants of Bacchus," from Greek Bakkhai, plural of Bakkhe, from Bakkhos (see Bacchus).
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Bacchanal 
1530s (n.), "riotous, drunken roistering;" 1540s (adj.) "pertaining to Bacchus," from Latin bacchanalis "having to do with Bacchus (q.v.). Meaning "characterized by intemperate drinking" is from 1711; meaning "one who indulges in drunken revels" is from 1812.
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Bacchanalia (n.)
"drunken revelry," 1630s, from the name of the Roman festival held in honor of Bacchus, from neuter plural of Latin bacchanalis "having to do with Bacchus" (q.v.); the festivals became so notorious for excess that they were forbidden by the Senate 186 B.C.E. A participant is a Bacchant (1690s), fem. Bacchante, from French. The plural of both is Bacchantes.
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Bacchanalian (adj.)
1560s, "characterized by intemperate drinking;" see Bacchanalia + -an. From 1620s as "pertaining to Bacchanals." As a noun from 1610s, "participant in the Bacchanalia."
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Bacchus 
Greek god of wine and revelry, a later name of Dionysus, late 15c., from Latin Bacchus, from Greek Bakkhos, perhaps related to Latin bacca "berry, fruit of a tree or shrub" (see bay (n.4)), or from an Asian language. Perhaps originally a Thracian fertility god.
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bach (n.)
1845, American English, clipped form of bachelor (n.). Also in colloquial American English use as a verb (1864, typically with it) meaning "to live as an unmarried man," especially "to do one's own cooking and cleaning." Related: Bached; baching.
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bachelor (n.)

c. 1300, "young man;" also "youthful knight, novice in arms," from Old French bacheler, bachelor, bachelier (11c.) "knight bachelor," a young squire in training for knighthood, also "young man; unmarried man," and a university title. Of uncertain origin.

Perhaps from Medieval Latin baccalarius "vassal farmer, adult serf without a landholding," one who helps or tends a baccalaria "field or land in the lord's demesne" (according to old French sources, perhaps from an alteration of vacca "a cow" and originally "grazing land" [Kitchin]). But Wedgwood points out that the baccalarii "were reckoned as rustici, and were bound to certain duty work for their lord. There is no appearance in the passages cited of their having had any military character whatever." (He favored a Celtic origin).

Or perhaps from Latin baculum "a stick," because the squire would practice with a staff, not a sword. "Perhaps several independent words have become confused in form" [Century Dictionary].

The meaning in English expanded by early 14c. to "young unmarried man," late 14c. to "one who has taken the lowest degree in a university." Bachelor party as a pre-wedding ritual is by 1882.

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bachelorette (n.)

"unmarried woman," 1896, from bachelor with French ending -ette. Replaced earlier bachelor-girl (1888). The word appears to have been formed in English; Old French had bachelette "young girl" (15c.), also bachelle, bacelette, bachelote; Modern French is said to use bachelière only in the "student" sense.

Jessica. Thanks! Is Mr. Sparrow a bachelor?
Miss Cornelia. He is, and in all probability will remain one.
Jessica. I'm beginning to think there are pleasanter conditions in this world than being a bachelorette.
Miss Cornelia. Where did you ever pick up such a remarkable word? A bachelorette! What in the world is a bachelorette?
Jessica (smiling). You are.
["The Dummy," Alice Yates Grant, 1896]
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bacillus (n.)
1877, medical Latin, from Late Latin bacillus "wand," literally "little staff," diminutive of baculum "a stick, staff, walking stick," from PIE *bak- "staff" (also source of Greek bakterion; see bacteria) + instrumentive suffix -culo. Introduced as a term in bacteriology 1853 by German botanist Ferdinand Cohn (1828-1898).
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