Etymology
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dub (v.2)

"add or alter sound on film," 1929, shortening of double (v.); so called because it involves making an additional recording of voices and combining it with the soundtrack. The type of re-mixed reggae music was so called from 1974, probably for the same reason. Related: Dubbed; dubbing.

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inflect (v.)

early 15c., "to bend inward," from Latin inflectere (past participle inflexus) "to bend in, bow, curve," figuratively, "to change, alter, influence," from in- "in" (see in- (1)) + flectere "to bend" (see flexible). Grammatical sense "to vary by change of form" (especially at the end of a word) is from 1660s. Related: Inflected; inflecting.

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discolor (v.)

late 14c., "alter the proper or natural color of," from Old French descolorer, from des- (see dis-) + colorer "to color," from Latin colorare "to color, to get tanned," from color "color of the skin, color in general" (see color (n.)). Sense of "become discolored" is from 1550s. Related: Discolored; discoloring.

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innovate (v.)

1540s, "introduce as new" (transitive), from Latin innovatus, past participle of innovare "to renew, restore;" also "to change," from in- "into" (from PIE root *en "in") + novus "new" (see new). Intransitive meaning "bring in new things, alter established practices" is from 1590s. Related: Innovated; innovating.

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reverse (v.)

early 14c., reversen, (transitive), "change, alter" (a sense now obsolete); late 14c., "turn (someone or something) in an opposite direction, turn the other way, turn inside out," also in a general sense, "alter to the opposite;" from Old French reverser "reverse, turn around; roll, turn up" (12c.), from Late Latin reversare "turn about, turn back," frequentative of Latin revertere "turn back, turn about; come back, return" (see revert).

From c. 1400 as "turn (something) upside down;" from early 15c. as "go backward" (intransitive). Of judicial sentences, "set aside, make void," mid-15c. In mechanics, "cause to revolve or act in a contrary direction," by 1860; the sense of "put a motor vehicle in reverse gear" is by 1902. Related: Reversed; reversing.

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Nephilim 

Biblical offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" before the Flood; of uncertain and much-disputed etymology.

The only obvious meaning of this Hebrew term is "fallen ones" — perhaps, those who have come down from the realm of the gods; but then the word might conceivably reflect an entirely different, un-Hebraic background. [Robert Alter, "The Five Books of Moses," 2004]
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permutate (v.)

1898 in the modern sense of "change the order of" (earlier "to change, alter, 16c. but obsolete thereafter), from Latin permutatus, past participle of permutare "change thoroughly, exchange" (see permutation). "Probably regarded by those who use it as a back-formation from permutation" [OED]. Compare permute. Related: Permutated; permutating.

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parallax (n.)

"apparent displacement of an object observed, due to an actual displacement of the observer," 1570s, from French parallaxe (mid-16c.), from Greek parallaxis "change, alteration, inclination of two lines meeting at an angle," from parallassein "to alter, make things alternate," from para- (see para- (1)) + allassein "to change," from allos "other" (from PIE root *al- "beyond"). Related: Parallactic.

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disfigure (v.)
Origin and meaning of disfigure

late 14c., "mar the external figure of, impair the beauty, symmetry, or excellence of," also "transform the appearance of, disguise," from Old French desfigurer "disfigure, alter, disguise, destroy," from Medieval Latin diffigurare, from assimilated form of Latin dis- (see dis-) + figurare "to form, shape," from figura "a shape, form, figure" (from PIE root *dheigh- "to form, build"). Related: Disfigured; disfiguring; disfiguration.

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modify (v.)

late 14c., modifien, "alter, amend, adjust, change the properties, form, or function of;" also "set limits, keep within the bounds of reason; choose a middle course," from Old French modifier (14c.), from Latin modificare "to limit, measure off, restrain," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures") + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Modified; modifying.

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