convince (v.)

1520s, "to overcome in argument," from Latin convincere "to overcome decisively," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + vincere "to conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). Meaning "to firmly persuade or satisfy by argument or evidence" is from c. 1600. Related: Convinced; convincing; convincingly.

To convince a person is to satisfy his understanding as to the truth of a certain statement; to persuade him is, by derivation, to affect his will by motives; but it has long been used also for convince, as in Luke xx. 6, "they be persuaded that John was a prophet." There is a marked tendency now to confine persuade to its own distinctive meaning. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
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affectionate (adj.)
1580s, "fond, loving," from affection + -ate (1); suggested by French affectionné. Early, now mostly obsolete, senses included "prejudiced" (1530s), "inclined" (1530s), "passionate" (1540s), "earnest" (c. 1600). Other forms also used in the main modern sense of this word included affectual "zealous; affectionate" (early 15c.), affectuous "eager, loving" (mid-15c.), affectious (1580s), from Latin affectuosus. Related: Affectionately.
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scald (v.)

c. 1200, scalden, "to be very hot;" also "to affect (someone) painfully by short exposure to hot liquid or steam," from Old North French escalder "to scald, to scorch" (Old French eschalder "heat, boil up, bubble," Modern French échauder), from Late Latin excaldare "bathe in hot water" (source also of Spanish escaldar, Italian scaldare "heat with hot water"), from Latin ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + calidus "hot" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm"). Related: Scalded; scalding.

"[T]he word entered at an early date into the Scandinavian languages" [OED]. The noun is c. 1600, from the verb, "burn or injury to the skin by hot liquid or steam."

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Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to touch, handle," with figurative extensions ("border on; taste, partake of; strike, hit; affect, impress; trick, cheat; mention, speak of").

It forms all or part of: attain; contact; contaminate; entire; intact; integer; integrate; integrity; noli me tangere; tact; tactics; tactile; tangent; tangible; task; taste; tax; taxis.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin tangere "to touch," taxare "to touch, assess," tactus "touch," integer "intact, whole, complete, perfect; honest;" Greek tassein "to arrange," tetagon "having seized;" Old English þaccian "stroke, strike gently."
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post-modern (adj.)

also post-modern, post modern, by 1919, in frequent use from 1949, from post- + modern. Of architecture from 1940s; specific sense in the arts emerged 1960s (see postmodernism).

But it has been only during the later decades of the modern era — during that time interval that might fairly be called the post-modern era — that this mechanistic conception of things has begun seriously to affect the current system of knowledge and belief; and it has not hitherto seriously taken effect except in technology and in the material sciences. [Thorstein Veblen, "The Vested Interests and the Common Man," 1919]
So much for the misapplied theory which has helped set the artist's nerves a-quiver and incited him to the extremes of post modern art, literary and other. [Wilson Follett, "Literature and Bad Nerves," Harper's, June 1921]
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delict (n.)

"a transgression or offense," in civil law, a misdemeanor, 1520s, from Latin delictum "fault, offense, crime," neuter singular of past participle of delinquere "to fail; be wanting, fall short; offend," from de- "completely" (see de-) + linquere "to leave" (from PIE root *leikw- "to leave"). Related: Delictable "criminal, wicked," early 15c. Phrase in flagrant delict translates Latin in flagrante delicto.

Delicts are commonly understood as slighter offenses which do not immediately affect the public peace, but which imply an obligation on the part of the offender to make an atonement to the public by suffering punishment, and also to make reparation for the injury committed The term delinquency has the same signification. [Century Dictionary]
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penetrate (v.)

1520s, "to pierce into or through," from Latin penetratus, past participle of penetrare "to put or get into, enter into; cause to go into." This is related to penitus "within, inmost, interior," penetralis "penetrating; innermost;" penus "innermost part of a temple, store of food," penarius "used for storing food;" Penates "household gods."

All are from penus/penoris "food, provisions," from Proto-Italic *penos, from PIE *penos "food" (source also of Lithuanian penėti "to feed"). De Vann writes that "The semantic appurtenance to 'feed' is explained by Stüber as 'what one feeds with' ('food') > 'the place one feeds at' > 'interior, home'."

The figurative senses of "enter and affect deeply, influence, impress" and "gain intellectual or spiritual access" are from 1580s. Related: Penetrated; penetrating.

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sweep (v.)
early 14c., "make clean by sweeping with a broom;" mid-14c., "perform the act of sweeping," of uncertain origin, perhaps from a past tense form of Middle English swope "sweep," from Old English swapan "to sweep" (transitive & intransitive); see swoop (v.), or perhaps from a Scandinavian source. Related: Swept; sweeping.

From late 14c. as "hasten, rush, move swiftly and strongly;" also "collect by sweeping." From c. 1400 in transitive sense "drive quickly, impel, move or carry forward by force;" mid-15c. as "clear (something) away." Meaning "win all the events" is 1960, American English. Sense of "pass systematically over in search of something" is from 1966. To sweep (someone) off (his or her) feet "affect with infatuation" is from 1913.
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strigil (n.)

"ancient tool for scraping the skin after a bath," 1580s, from Latin strigilis "scraper, horse-comb," from stringere (1) "draw along a surface, graze, touch lightly; strip off, pluck off, cut away; clip, prune; lay bare, unsheathe," figuratively "waste, consume, reduce; touch, move, affect, cause pain," from PIE root *strig- "to stroke, rub, press" (source also of Latin striga "stroke, strike, furrow," stria "furrow, channel;" Old Church Slavonic striga "shear;" Old English stracian "to stroke;" German streichen "to stroke, rub").

Etymologists dispute over whether this is connected to Latin stringere (2) "to tie, tighten," root of strain (v.). Based on the sense differences, de Vaan writes, "It appears that a merger occurred of two different PIE verbs, *strig- 'to brush, strip' and *strengh- 'to tie'."

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concern (v.)

early 15c., of persons, "to perceive, distinguish;" also, of things, "to refer to, relate to, pertain to," from Old French concerner (15c.) and directly from Medieval Latin concernere "concern, touch, belong to," figurative use of Late Latin concernere "to sift, mix as in a sieve," from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see con-) + cernere "to sift," hence "perceive, comprehend" (from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish").

Apparently the sense of the first element shifted to intensive in Medieval Latin. From late 15c. as "to affect the interest of, be of importance to;" hence the meaning "to worry, disturb, make uneasy or anxious" (17c.). Reflexive use "busy, occupy, engage" ("concern oneself") is from 1630s. Related: Concerned; concerning.

Used imperatively from 1803 (compare similar use of confound); often rendered in dialect as consarn (1832), probably a euphemism for damn (compare concerned). Letter opening to whom it may concern attested by 1740.

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