Etymology
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adventitious (adj.)
"of the nature of an addition from without, not from the essence of the subject; accidentally or casually acquired," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin adventitius "coming from abroad, extraneous," a corruption of Latin adventicius "foreign, strange, accidental," from advent- past participle stem of advenire "to arrive at, reach, come to" (see advent). Related: Adventitiously; adventitiousness.
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needle (v.)

1715, "to sew or pierce with a needle," from needle (n.). Meaning "goad, provoke" (1881) probably is from earlier meaning "haggle in making a bargain" (1812). Needler, in addition to "maker or seller of needles" (late 14c.) meant "a sharp bargainer, thrifty person" (1829). Related: Needled; needling.

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ascription (n.)

1590s, "action of adding in writing;" c. 1600, "attribution of authorship or origin," from Latin ascriptionem (nominative ascriptio) "an addition in writing," noun of action from past-participle stem of ascribere "to write in, add to in a writing; impute, attribute," from ad "to" (see ad-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut").

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postscript (n.)

"an addition made to a written or printed composition," especially a paragraph added to a letter which already has been concluded and signed by the writer, 1550s, from Latin post scriptum "written after" (compare postscribere "to write after"), from post "after" (see post-) + neuter past participle of scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut").

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epi- 

before vowels reduced to ep-, before aspirated vowels eph-, word-forming element meaning "on, upon, above," also "in addition to; toward, among," from Greek epi "upon, at, close upon (in space or time), on the occasion of, in addition," also "after," from PIE *epi, *opi "near, at, against" (source also of Sanskrit api "also, besides;" Avestan aipi "also, to, toward;" Armenian ev "also, and;" Latin ob "toward, against, in the way of;" Oscan op, Greek opi- "behind;" Hittite appizzis "younger;" Lithuanian ap- "about, near;" Old Church Slavonic ob "on"). A productive prefix in Greek; also used in modern scientific compounds (such as epicenter).

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lean-to (n.)
"building whose rafters lean against another building or wall," mid-15c., from lean (v.) + to (adv.). Compare penthouse. "An addition made to a house behind, or at the end of it, chiefly for domestic offices, of one story or more, lower than the main building, and the roof of it leaning against the wall of the house" [Bartlett].
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Cartesian (adj.)
pertaining to the works or ideas of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), 1650s, from Cartesius, the Latinized form of his surname (regarded as Des Cartes) + -ian. In addition to his philosophy (based on the fundamental principle cogito, ergo sum), he developed a system of coordinates for determining the positions of points on a plane.
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overmuch (adj.)

"too great in amount, excessive, immoderate," c. 1300, from over- + much (q.v.). As an adverb, "excessively, immoderately," from late 14c. As a noun, "an excessive amount," c. 1300. Old English had cognate ofermicel. Middle English also had overmore "further, in addition, moreover" (late 14c.). 

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anschluss (n.)
1924 as a German word in English, from German Anschluß, "connection; addition; junction," literally "joining, union," from anschließen "to join, annex," from an "at, to, toward" (from Old High German ana- "on;" see on) + schließen "to shut, close, lock, bolt; contract" (a marriage); see slot (n.2). Specifically the Pan-Germanic proposal to unite Germany and Austria, accomplished in 1938.
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too (adv.)
"in addition; in excess," a variant of to (prep.) originally used when the word was stressed in pronunciation. In Old English, the preposition (go to town) leveled with the adverb (the door slammed to). Most of the adverbial uses of to since have become obsolete or archaic except the senses "in addition, besides" (Old English), "more than enough" (c. 1300). As this often fell at the end of a phrase (tired and hungry too), it retained stress and the spelling -oo became regular from 16c.

Use after a verb, for emphasis (as in did, too!) is attested from 1914. Slang too-too "excessive in social elegance" first recorded 1881. Too much is from 1530s as "more than can be endured;" sense of "excellent" first recorded 1937 in jazz slang. German zu unites the senses of English to and too.
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