Etymology
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uric (adj.)
"pertaining to or obtained from urine," 1797, from French urique, from urine (see urine). Uric acid attested from 1800.
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formic (adj.)
1791 (in formic acid), literally "from ants," coined from Latin formica "ant" (see Formica (n.2)). The acid first was obtained in a fairly pure form in 1749 by German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1709-1782), who prepared it by distilling red ants. It also is found in nettles and bee stings.
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phosphate (n.)

a salt of phosphoric acid, 1795, from French phosphate (1787), from phosphore (see phosphorus) + -ate (3). Related: Phosphatic.

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chlorine (n.)

nonmetallic element, the name coined 1810 by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy from Latinized form of Greek khlōros "pale green" (from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives denoting "green" and "yellow") + chemical suffix -ine (2). Named for its color. Discovered 1774, but known at first as oxymuriatic acid gas, or dephlogisticated marine acid.

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hydrochloric (adj.)
"composed of chlorine and hydrogen," 1815, from hydrochloric acid (proposed 1814 by Gay-Lussac); see hydrogen + chlorine + -ic.
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gluten (n.)

1630s, "a sticky substance," from French gluten "sticky substance" (16c.) or directly from Latin gluten (glutin-) "glue" (see glue (n.)). Used 16c.-19c. for the part of animal tissue now called fibrin; used since 1803 of the nitrogenous part of the flour of wheat or other grain; hence glutamic acid (1871), a common amino acid, and its salt, glutamate.

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codon (n.)

"one of a group of nucleotides that determine which amino acid is inserted at a given position," 1962, from code (n.) + -on.

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butyl (n.)
hydrocarbon radical, 1855, from butyric acid, a product of fermentation found in rancid butter, from Latin butyrum "butter" (see butter (n.)).
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niacin (n.)

"pellagra-preventing vitamin in enriched bread," 1942, coined from first syllables of  nicotinic acid (see nicotine) + chemical suffix -in (2). It was suggested by the American Medical Association as a more commercially viable name than nicotinic acid.

The new name was found to be necessary because some anti-tobacco groups warned against enriched bread because it would foster the cigarette habit. ["Cooperative Consumer," Feb. 28, 1942]
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phenol (n.)

"carbolic acid, hydroxyl derivative of benzene," 1844, from pheno- + -ol. Discovered in coal tar in 1834; used as an antiseptic from 1867. Related: Phenolic.

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