Etymology
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reward (v.)

c. 1300, rewarden, "to grant, bestow;" early 14c. "to give as prize or compensation," from Anglo-French and Old North French rewarder "to regard, reward" (Old French regarder) "take notice of, regard, watch over." This is from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see re-), + warder "look, heed, watch," from Frankish or some other Germanic language, from Proto-Germanic *wardon "to guard" (from PIE root *wer- (3) "perceive, watch out for").

Originally any form of requital, good or bad, for service or evil-doing. A doublet of regard (v.), reward was used 14c.-15c. in the senses now given to that word: "look at; care about; consider." Related: Rewarded; rewarding.

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periplum 

1934, in Ezra Pound: "periplum, not as land looks on a map / but as sea board seen by men sailing" [Canto LIX], or as Hugh Kenner described it, "The image of successive discoveries breaking upon the consciousness of the voyager ..., the voyage of discovery among facts, ... contrasted with the conventions and artificialities of the bird's-eye view afforded by the map," from accusative of Latin periplus, in classical use "a written list of the ports and coastal landmarks, in order, with approximate distances between, that a ship's captain could use to navigate a shore."

From Greek periplous, contracted from periploos, literally "a sailing round," from peri (prep.) "around, about, beyond" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + ploos "a sailing, voyage, navigation," from plein "to navigate" (from PIE root *pleu- "to flow"). 

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prodigal (adj.)

c. 1500, of persons, "given to extravagant expenditure, lavish, wasteful," a back-formation from prodigality, or else from French prodigal and directly from Late Latin prodigalis, from Latin prodigus "wasteful," from prodigere "drive away, waste," from pro "forth" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + agere "to set in motion, drive; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

Most often in prodigal son (Vulgate Latin filius prodigus) from the parable told in Luke xv.11-32. The meaning "very liberal, lavishly bountiful" is by 1590s. As a noun, "prodigal person, one who expends money lavishly and without necessity," 1590s, from the adjective (the Latin adjective also was used as a noun). Related: Prodigially.

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*ner- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "man," also "vigorous, vital, strong."

It forms all or part of: Alexander; Andrew; andro-; androgynous; android; Andromache; Andromeda; andron; anthropo-; anthropocentric; anthropology; anthropomorphous; Leander; lycanthropy; Lysander; misanthrope; pachysandra; philander; philanthropy; polyandria; polyandrous.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit nar-, Armenian ayr, Welsh ner "a man;" Greek aner (genitive andros) "a man, a male" (as opposed to a woman, a youth, or a god).

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alley (n.1)

mid-14c., "passage in a house; open passage between buildings; walkway in a garden," from Old French alee (13c., Modern French allée) "a path, passage, way, corridor," also "a going," from fem. of ale, past participle of aler "to go," which is of uncertain origin. It might be a contraction of Latin ambulare "to walk" (Watkins, see amble (v.)), or it might be from Gallo-Roman allari, a back-formation from Latin allatus "having been brought to" [Barnhart]. Compare sense evolution of gate.

Applied by c. 1500 to "long narrow enclosure for playing at bowls, skittles, etc." Used in place names from c. 1500. "In U.S. applied to what in London is called a Mews" [OED], and in American English especially of a back-lane parallel to a main street (1729). To be up someone's alley "in someone's neighborhood" (literally or figuratively) is from 1931; alley-cat (n.) is attested by 1890.

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seraph (n.)

in reference to the winged, human-like celestial creatures that hovered above God's throne in Isaiah's dream, 1667, a word first used by Milton (probably on analogy of cherub/cherubim), a back-formed singular from Seraphim (attested from Old English). An earlier singular in English was seraphin (1570s).

This is from Late Latin seraphim, from Greek seraphim, from Hebrew seraphim (only in Isaiah vi), plural of *saraph (which does not occur in the Bible), probably literally "the burning one," from saraph "it burned."

Seraphs were traditionally regarded as burning or flaming angels, though the word seems to have some etymological sense of "flying," perhaps from confusion with the root of Arabic sharafa "be lofty." Some scholars identify it with a word found in other passages interpreted as "fiery flying serpent." The Late Latin word also was taken by early Christians as the name of a class of angels.

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hamburger (n.)

1610s, Hamburger "native of Hamburg." Also used of ships from Hamburg. From 1838 as a type of excellent black grape indigenous to Tyrolia; 1857 as a variety of hen.

The meat product was so called by 1880 (as hamburg steak); if it was named for the German city no certain connection has ever been put forth, and there may not be one unless it be that Hamburg was a major port of departure for German immigrants to United States. An 1809 account of life and manners in Iceland says meat smoked in the chimney there is referred to as Hamburg beef.

The meaning "a sandwich consisting of a bun and a patty of grilled hamburger meat" attested by 1909, short for hamburger sandwich (1902). Shortened form burger is attested from 1939; beefburger was attempted 1940, in an attempt to make the main ingredient more explicit, after the -burger had taken on a life of its own as a suffix (compare cheeseburger, attested by 1938).

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pantaloons (n.)

1660s, kind of tights-like garment for men (consisting of breeches and stockings in one; originally a French fashion and execrated as such by late 17c. English writers), associated with Pantaloun,Pantaloon (1580s), the silly old man character in Italian comedy, who wore spectacles, slippers, and tight trousers over his skinny legs.

His name is from Italian Pantalone, from San Pantaleone, a Christian martyr who was a popular saint in Venice (Pantaloon in the comedies represents the Venetian). The name, a favorite one among the Venetians, is of Greek origin and means "all-compassionate" (Littré), or, according to Klein, Century Dictionary, etc., "entirely lion," perhaps in reference to the lion symbolic of St. Mark.

By 1798 the word was revived in reference to tight long trousers buttoned or tied below the knee (replacing knee-breeches), worn by men of fashion. These were gradually replaced by modern trousers, but the name persisted. Pants is a shortened form attested by 1840. The diminutive pantalettes for "loose drawers with frills at the bottoms of the legs, worn by young girls," is by 1834.

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*(s)pen- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to draw, stretch, spin."

It forms all or part of: append; appendix; avoirdupois; compendium; compensate; compensation; counterpoise; depend; dispense; equipoise; expend; expense; expensive; hydroponics; impend; painter (n.2) "rope or chain that holds an anchor to a ship's side;" pansy; penchant; pend; pendant; pendentive; pending; pendular; pendulous; pendulum; pension; pensive; penthouse; perpendicular; peso; poise; ponder; ponderous; pound (n.1) "measure of weight;" prepend; prepense; preponderate; propensity; recompense; span (n.1) "distance between two objects;" span (n.2) "two animals driven together;" spangle; spanner; spend; spider; spin; spindle; spinner; spinster; stipend; suspend; suspension.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin pendere "to hang, to cause to hang," pondus "weight" (perhaps the notion is the weight of a thing measured by how much it stretches a cord), pensare "to weigh, consider;" Greek ponos "toil," ponein "to toil;" Lithuanian spendžiu, spęsti "lay a snare;" Old Church Slavonic peti "stretch, strain," pato "fetter," pina "I span;" Old English spinnan "to spin," spannan "to join, fasten; stretch, span;" Armenian henum "I weave;" Greek patos "garment," literally "that which is spun;" Lithuanian pinu "I plait, braid," spandau "I spin;" Middle Welsh cy-ffiniden "spider;" Old English spinnan "draw out and twist fibers into thread," spiðra "spider," literally "spinner."

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pack (v.)

late 14c., pakken, "to put together in a pack, bundle (something) up," from pack (n.), possibly influenced by Anglo-French empaker (late 13c.) and Medieval Latin paccare "pack," both of which are from Germanic (compare Middle Dutch packen).

Meaning "pack compactly, cram or crowd together" is from mid-15c. Sense of "to fill (a container) with things arranged more or less methodically" is from late 15c. Meaning "to go away, leave" is from mid-15c. Meaning "to force or press down or together firmly" (of dirt, snow, etc.) is by 1850.

Some senses suggesting "make secret arrangement, manipulate so as to serve one's purposes" are from an Elizabethan mispronunciation of pact, as in pack the cards (1590s) "arrange the deck so as to give one undue advantage." The sense of "to carry or convey in a pack" (1805) led to the general sense of "to carry in any manner;" hence "to be capable of delivering" (a punch, etc.), attested from 1921, and  pack heat "carry a gun," 1940s underworld slang. To pack it up "give up, finish" is by 1942. Related: Packed; packing.

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