Etymology
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prophet (n.)

late 12c., "person who speaks for God; one who foretells, inspired preacher," from Old French prophete, profete "prophet, soothsayer" (11c., Modern French prophète) and directly from Latin propheta, from Greek prophētēs (Doric prophatēs) "an interpreter, spokesman, proclaimer; a harbinger" (as cicadas of summer), but especially "one who speaks for a god, inspired preacher or teacher," from pro "before" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before") + root of phanai "to speak" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").

The Greek word was used in Septuagint for Hebrew nabj "soothsayer, inspired prophet." Early Latin writers translated Greek prophetes with Latin vates, but the Latinized form propheta predominated in post-Classical times, chiefly due to Christian writers, probably because of pagan associations of vates. In English, meaning "prophetic writer of the Old Testament" is from late 14c. Non-religious sense is from 1848; used of Muhammad by 1610s (translating Arabic al-nabiy, and sometimes also al-rasul, properly "the messenger"). The Latin word is glossed in Old English by witga. The Prophets for "the prophetic books of the Old Testament" is by late 14c.

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spell (n.1)

Old English spell "story, saying, tale, history, narrative, fable; discourse, command," from Proto-Germanic *spellam (see spell (v.1)). Compare Old Saxon spel, Old Norse spjall, Old High German spel, Gothic spill "report, discourse, tale, fable, myth;" German Beispiel "example." From c. 1200 as "an utterance, something said, a statement, remark;" meaning "set of words with supposed magical or occult powers, incantation, charm" first recorded 1570s; hence any means or cause of enchantment.

The term 'spell' is generally used for magical procedures which cause harm, or force people to do something against their will — unlike charms for healing, protection, etc. ["Oxford Dictionary of English Folklore"]
In general terms, the belief underlying the use of spells is that the wish that they embody will be fulfilled, regardless of its goodness or badness, so long as the formula has been correctly pronounced. Broadly speaking, then, spell and prayer, like magic and religion to which they severally belong, can be distinguished by the nature of the intended purpose. [Enyclopaedia Britannica, 1941]

Also in Old English, "doctrine; a sermon; religious instruction or teaching; the gospel; a book of the Bible;" compare gospel. The 11c. glossaries give spel for Latin fabula.

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augur (n.)

"ancient Romans functionary whose duty was to observe and interpret auspices, or reputed natural signs concerning future events," 1540s, from Latin augur, a religious official in ancient Rome, perhaps (de Vaan) originally meaning "an increase in crops enacted in ritual," in which case it probably is from Old Latin *augos (genitive *augeris) "increase," and is related to augere "increase" (from PIE root *aug- (1) "to increase").

The more popular theory is that it is from Latin avis "bird," because the flights, singing, and feeding of birds were important objects of divination (compare auspex). In that case, the second element would be from garrire "to talk." Related: Augural; augurial.

These auspices were studied, with a fixed ceremonial, in the following classes of phenomena: (1) signs from the heavens, including thunder and lightning, and other meteorological manifestations; (2) signs from the direction of flight or the various cries of birds; (3) signs from the manner of eating of domestic hens kept for this purpose; (4) signs from the movements and attitudes of animals; (5) evil omens from various fortuitous incidents, such as the fall of any object, the gnawing of a mouse, the creaking of a chair, etc., occurring during the augural ceremonies or when these were about to begin. [Century Dictionary]
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mystery (n.1)

early 14c., misterie, in a theological sense, "religious truth via divine revelation, hidden spiritual significance, mystical truth," from Anglo-French *misterie, Old French mistere "secret, mystery, hidden meaning" (Modern French mystère) and directly from Latin mysterium "secret rite, secret worship; a sacrament, a secret thing."

This is from Greek mystērion (usually in plural mysteria) "secret rite or doctrine (known and practiced by certain initiated persons only), consisting of purifications, sacrificial offerings, processions, songs, etc.," from mystēs "one who has been initiated," from myein "to close, shut" (see mute (adj.)); perhaps referring to the lips (in secrecy) or to the eyes (only initiates were allowed to see the sacred rites).

The Greek word was used in Septuagint for "secret counsel of God," translated in Vulgate as sacramentum. Non-theological use in English, "a hidden or secret thing; a fact, matter, etc., of which the meaning explanation, or cause is unknown," is from late 14c. In reference to the ancient rites of Greece, Egypt, etc. it is attested from 1640s. Meaning "detective story" is recorded by 1908. Mystery meat, slang for "unidentifiable meat served in a military mess, student dining hall, etc." is by 1949, probably from World War II armed services.

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sedition (n.)

mid-14c., sedicioun, "rebellion, uprising, revolt, factitious commotion in the state; concerted attempt to overthrow civil authority; violent strife between factions, civil or religious disorder, riot; rebelliousness against authority," from Old French sedicion (14c., Modern French sédition) and directly from Latin seditionem (nominative seditio) "civil disorder, dissension, strife; rebellion, mutiny," literally "a going apart, separation." This is from sed- "without, apart, aside" (see se-) + itio "a going," from ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").

In early use, 'factious with tumult, turbulent' (J.); now chiefly, engaged in promoting disaffection or inciting to revolt against constituted authority [OED]

The meaning "conduct or language inciting to rebellion against a lawful government" is attested by 1838. Less serious than treason, as wanting an overt act.

But it is not essential to the offense of sedition that it threaten the very existence of the state or its authority in its entire extent. Thus, there are seditious assemblies, seditious libels, etc., as well as direct and indirect threats and acts amounting to sedition — all of which are punishable as misdemeanors by fine and imprisonment. [Century Dictionary]

Latin seditio was glossed in Old English by unsib, folcslite.  

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flesh (n.)

Old English flæsc "flesh, meat, muscular parts of animal bodies; body (as opposed to soul)," also "living creatures," also "near kindred" (a sense now obsolete except in phrase flesh and blood), from Proto-Germanic *flaiska-/*fleiski- (source also of Old Frisian flesk, Middle Low German vlees, German Fleisch "flesh," Old Norse flesk "pork, bacon"), which is of uncertain origin; according to Watkins, originally "piece of meat torn off," from PIE *pleik- "to tear," but Boutkan suspects a northern European substratum word.

Of fruits from 1570s. Figurative use for "carnal nature, animal or physical nature of man" (Old English) is from the Bible, especially Paul's use of Greek sarx, and this led to sense of "sensual appetites" (c. 1200).

Flesh-wound is from 1670s; flesh-color, the hue of "Caucasian" skin, is first recorded 1610s, described as a tint composed of "a light pink with a little yellow" [O'Neill, "Dyeing," 1862]. In the flesh "in a bodily form" (1650s) originally was of Jesus (Wyclif has up the flesh, Tindale after the flesh). An Old English poetry-word for "body" was flæsc-hama, literally "flesh-home." A religious tract from 1548 has fleshling "a sensual person." Flesh-company (1520s) was an old term for "sexual intercourse."

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cosmos (n.)

c. 1200, "the universe, the world" (but not popular until 1848, when it was taken as the English equivalent to Humboldt's Kosmos in translations from German), from Latinized form of Greek kosmos "order, good order, orderly arrangement," a word with several main senses rooted in those notions: The verb kosmein meant generally "to dispose, prepare," but especially "to order and arrange (troops for battle), to set (an army) in array;" also "to establish (a government or regime);" "to deck, adorn, equip, dress" (especially of women). Thus kosmos had an important secondary sense of "ornaments of a woman's dress, decoration" (compare kosmokomes "dressing the hair," and cosmetic) as well as "the universe, the world."

Pythagoras is said to have been the first to apply this word to "the universe," perhaps originally meaning "the starry firmament," but it later was extended to the whole physical world, including the earth. For specific reference to "the world of people," the classical phrase was he oikoumene (ge) "the inhabited (earth)." Septuagint uses both kosmos and oikoumene. Kosmos also was used in Christian religious writing with a sense of "worldly life, this world (as opposed to the afterlife)," but the more frequent word for this was aiōn, literally "lifetime, age."

The word cosmos often suggested especially "the universe as an embodiment of order and harmony."

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charm (n.)

c. 1300, "incantation, magic charm," from Old French charme (12c.) "magic charm, magic spell incantation; song, lamentation," from Latin carmen "song, verse, enchantment, religious formula," from canere "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"), with dissimilation of -n- to -r- before -m- in intermediate form *canmen (for a similar evolution, see Latin germen "germ," from *genmen). The notion is of chanting or reciting verses of magical power.

A yet stronger power than that of herb or stone lies in the spoken word, and all nations use it both for blessing and cursing. But these, to be effective, must be choice, well knit, rhythmic words (verba concepta), must have lilt and tune; hence all that is strong in the speech wielded by priest, physician, magician, is allied to the forms of poetry. [Jakob Grimm, "Teutonic Mythology" (transl. Stallybrass), 1883] 

The sense of "pleasing quality, irresistible power to please and attract" evolved by 17c. From 1590s as "any item worn to avert evil;" the meaning "small trinket fastened to a watch-chain, etc." is recorded by 1865. Quantum physics sense is from 1964. Charm-bracelet is from 1941; charm-school from 1919. To work like a charm (figuratively) is recorded by 1824.

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schwarmerei (n.)

"fanatical enthusiasm for a cause or person, blindly shared by the masses;" 1845, a German word in a specialized philosophical sense taken whole into English (in the Edinburgh Review, which adds "a word untranslatable, because the thing itself is un-English"), from German Schwärmerei "noisy, dissolute pleasures; religious fanaticism," from schwärmen "to swarm," figuratively "to be enthusiastic" (related to the noun Schwarm; see swarm (n.)).

The second element might be the German equivalent of -ery, but the sense is not clear. Perhaps the meaning in -rei is essentially diminutive and also denotes ridiculousness or contemptibility [a suggestion from D. Boileau, "Nature and Genius of the German Language," 1843, who cites among other examples Liebelei, "vulgar, insipid sweet-hearting," Ausländerei "too-frequent use of foreign words." Also compare later Schweinerei, "obnoxious behavior; a repulsive incident or thing," literally "piggishness"].

Used in German by Kant, Schelling, Hölderlin; used in late 19c. English by Carlyle, Ruskin, etc.

But we are in hard times, now, for all men's wits; for men who know the truth are like to go mad from isolation; and the fools are all going mad in "Schwärmerei,"—only that is much the pleasanter way. [Ruskin, "Fors Clavigera"]

In mid-20c. also "schoolgirl crush." Related: Schwärmerisch.

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damn (v.)
Origin and meaning of damn

Middle English dampnen, also damnen, dammen, late 13c. as a legal term, "to condemn, declare guilty, convict;" c. 1300 in the theological sense of "doom to punishment in a future state," from Old French damner "damn, condemn; convict, blame; injure," derivative of Latin damnare "to adjudge guilty; to doom; to condemn, blame, reject," from noun damnum "damage, hurt, harm; loss, injury; a fine, penalty," from Proto-Italic *dapno-, possibly from an ancient religious term from PIE *dap- "to apportion in exchange" [Watkins] or *dhp-no- "expense, investment" [de Vaan]. The -p- in the English word disappeared 16c.

The legal meaning "pronounce judgment upon" evolved in the Latin word. The optative expletive use likely is as old as the theological sense. Damn and its derivatives generally were avoided in print from 18c. to 1930s (the famous line in the film version of "Gone with the Wind" was a breakthrough and required much effort by the studio). Meaning "judge or pronounce (a work) to be bad by public expression" is from 1650s; to damn with faint praise is from Pope.

The noun is recorded from 1610s, "utterance of the word 'damn.'" To be not worth a damn is from 1817. To not give (or care) a damn is by 1760. The adjective is 1775, short for damned; Damn Yankee, the characteristic Southern U.S. term for "Northerner," is attested by 1812 (as damned). Related: Damning.

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