Etymology
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barber (v.)

"to shave and dress the hair," c.1600, from barber (n.). Related: Barbered; barbering.

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barber-shop (n.)

also barbershop, 1570s, from barber + shop (n.). Earlier in same sense was barbery (c. 1500). Barber-shop in reference to close harmony male vocal quartets is attested from 1910; the custom of barbers keeping a musical instrument in their shops so waiting customers could entertain themselves is an old one, but the musical product formerly had a low reputation and barber's music (c. 1660) was "wretched, poorly performed music."

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barbican (n.)

"outer fortification of a city or castle," mid-13c., from Old French barbacane "exterior fortification" (12c.), a general Romanic word, said to be ultimately from Arabic or Persian (compare bab-khanah "gate-house"); according to Watkins from Old Iranian compound *pari-varaka-, from *pari- "around" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, around") + *varaka-, from PIE root *wer- (4) "to cover."

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Barbie 

1959, trademark name (reg. U.S.) of a popular line of dolls. Supposedly named after the daughter of its creator, U.S. businesswoman Ruth Handler (1916-2002); see Barbara.

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barbiturate (n.)

1928 (morphine barbiturate is from 1918), with chemical ending -ate (3) + barbituric (1865), from German barbitur in Barbitursäure "barbituric acid," coined 1863 by chemist Adolf von Baeyer. The reason for the name is unknown; some suggest it is from the woman's name Barbara, others that it is perhaps from Latin barbata, in Medieval Latin usnea barbata, literally "bearded moss." The second element is because it was obtained from uric acid. Related: Barbitol.

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Barcelona 

city in Spain, said to have been named for Carthaginian general Hamlicar Barca, who is supposed to have founded it 3c. B.C.E.

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bard (n.)

"ancient Celtic minstrel-poet," mid-15c., from Scottish, from Old Celtic bardos "poet, singer," from Celtic *bardo-, possibly from PIE *gwredho- "he who makes praises," suffixed form of root *gwere- (2) "to favor."

In historical times, a term of great respect among the Welsh, but one of contempt among the Scots (who considered them itinerant troublemakers). Subsequently idealized by Scott in the more ancient sense of "lyric poet, singer." Poetic use of the word in English is from Greek bardos, Latin bardus, both from Gaulish.

All vagabundis, fulis, bardis, ſcudlaris, and ſiclike idill pepill, ſall be brint on the cheek, and ſcourgit with wandis, except thay find ſum craft to win thair living. [from a 16c. list of historical laws of Scottish kings, in Sir James Balfour, "Practicks: Or, a System of the More Ancient Law of Scotland," 1754]
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bardic (adj.)

"pertaining to or of the nature of a bard or bards," 1775, from bard + -ic.

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bardolatry (n.)

"worship of Shakespeare" (the "Bard of Avon" since 1789), 1901, from bard + -latry "worship of," with connective -o-.

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bare (adj.)

Old English bær "naked, uncovered, unclothed," from Proto-Germanic *bazaz (source also of German bar, Old Norse berr, Dutch baar), from PIE *bhoso- "naked" (source also of Armenian bok "naked;" Old Church Slavonic bosu, Lithuanian basas "barefoot"). The meaning "sheer, absolute" (c. 1200) is from the notion of "complete in itself."

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