Etymology
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definitely (adv.)

"in a definite manner," 1580s, from definite + -ly (2). As a colloquial emphatic word, attested by 1931.

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phimosis (n.)

"contraction of the preputial orifice," 1670s, from Greek phimosis, literally "muzzling," from phimos "a muzzle, a gag," a word of unexplained etymology.

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erg (n.2)
"region of drifting sand dunes," 1875, from French erg (1854), from North African Arabic 'irj, from a Berber word.
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plumbo- 
word-forming element meaning "lead" (the metal), from combining form of Latin plumbum "lead" (see plumb (n.)).
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miso- 

word-forming element of Greek origin meaning "hater, hatred," before vowels, mis-, from Greek misos "hatred," misein "to hate," of uncertain etymology, perhaps from a Pre-Greek word. It was productive as a word-forming element in ancient Greek, for instance misoagathia "hatred of good or goodness;" misoponein "to hate work." In English it formed many compounds now obscure or recherche, but some perhaps still useful, such as  misocapnic (adj.) "hating (tobacco) smoke," misocyny "hatred of dogs," misoneism "hatred of novelty."

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hypostasis (n.)
Greek word meaning "substance; subsistence;" from hypo "under, beneath" (see hypo-) + stasis "a standing, a position" (see stasis). Used in Ecclesiastical Greek since earliest times for "person" of God in the Trinity. This led to centuries of wrangling over the definition. "In the necessity they were under of expressing themselves strongly against the Sabellians, the Greeks made choice of the word hypostasis, and the Latins of persona ; which change proved the occasion of endless disagreement" ["Pantologia, A New Cabinet Cyclopaedia," London, 1819]. The same word in old medicine meant "sediment in the urine."
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kaiser (n.)
1858 in reference to the emperors of Austria and (after 1870) Germany, from German Kaiser, Bavarian and Austrian spelling variant of of Middle High German keisar, from Old High German keisar "emperor," an early borrowing of Latin cognomen Caesar.

The Germanic peoples seem to have called all Roman emperors "caesar" (compare Old English casere, Old Norse keisari "an emperor"). The word also entered Germanic via Gothic, perhaps from Greek. According to Kluge, one of the earliest Latin loan word in Germanic. The Old English word fell from use after Middle English.
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reticulate (adj.)

"reticulated, covered with netted lines, having distinct lines or veins crossing as a network," 1650s, from Latin reticulatus "having a net-like pattern," from reticulum "little net," a double diminutive of rete "net," a word of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Lithuanian rėtis "sieve," or perhaps a loan-word from a non-IE language.

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bonanza (n.)
1844, western U.S. (1842 as a Mexican word in English), from American Spanish bonanza "a rich lode," originally "fair weather at sea, prosperity," from Vulgar Latin *bonacia, from Latin bonus "good" (see bonus). The Spanish word was transferred to mines, then, in English, to farms, then used generally for "a profitable thing."
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cockamamie (adj.)

"mixed-up, ridiculous, implausible," American English slang word attested by 1946, popularized c. 1960, but said to be New York City children's slang from mid-1920s; perhaps an alteration of decalcomania (see decal). There is a 1945 recorded use of the word apparently meaning a kind of temporary tattoo used by children.

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