"young kangaroo," 1839, sometimes said to be from a native Australian word joè, but more recently often said to be of unknown origin. Perhaps an extended use of Joey, the familiar form of the male proper name Joseph, for which Partridge lists many common or coarse meanings in 20c. Australian slang. Farmer and Henley ("Slang and Its Analogues") quote an 1887 article on "Australian Colloquialisms":
JOEY is a familiar name for anything young or small, and is applied indifferently to a puppy, or a kitten, or a child, while a WOOD-AND-WATER-JOEY is a hanger about hotels and a doer of odd jobs.
1854, "drinking bout," also (v.) "drink heavily, soak up alcohol;" dialectal use of binge "soak" (a wooden vessel). Said to have been originally as a dialect word: Binge is noted in Evans' "Leicestershire Words, Phrases and Proverbs" (London, 1848) as a dialect verb for "To soak in water a wooden vessel, that would otherwise leak," to make the wood swell. He adds that it was extended locally to excessive drinking ("soaking"). Sense extended c. World War I to include eating as well as drinking. Binge-watching is from 1996. Related: Binged; bingeing.
type of tree of rapid growth and moderate size, noted for light, soft wood and often planted for shade or ornament, mid-14c., from Anglo-French popler, from Old French poplier (13c., Modern French peulplier), from Latin pōpulus "poplar" (with a long "o;" not the same word that produced popular), which is of unknown origin, possibly from a PIE tree-name root *p(y)el- (source also of Greek pelea "elm"). Italian pioppo, Spanish chopo, German pappel, Old Church Slavonic topoli all are from Latin. The tall, columnar or spire-shaped variety are Lombardy poplars.
Middle English sapi, of a tree or of wood, "full of sap," from Late Old English sæpig, from sæp "sap of a plant" (see sap (n.1)). The colloquial figurative sense, in reference to persons, etc., "foolish, foolishly sentimental" (1660s) might have developed from an intermediate sense of "too wet, sodden, soggy" (late 15c.), or it might have come from sappy as "containing sapwood" (mid-15c.); compare sap (n.2). Or it might be from the notion of "green, juvenile," like a sapling tree. Earlier, now obsolete, figurative senses were "full of vitality" (1550s) and "immature" (1620s). Related: Sappily; sappiness.
1560s, "wild, unruly" (originally in reference to hawks), from French haggard, probably from Old French faulcon hagard "wild falcon," literally "falcon of the woods," from hagard, hagart, from Middle High German hag "hedge, copse, wood," from Proto-Germanic *hagon, from PIE root *kagh- "to catch, seize;" also "wickerwork, fence" (see hedge (n.)). OED, however, finds this derivation "very doubtful." Sense perhaps reinforced by Low German hager "gaunt, haggard." Sense of "with a haunted and wild expression" first recorded 1690s; that of "careworn" first recorded 1853. Sense influenced by association with hag. Related: Haggardly; haggardness.
c. 1200, "to control, guide, direct, make conform to a pattern," from Old French riuler "impose rule," from Latin regulare "to control by rule, direct," from Latin regula "rule, straight piece of wood," from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule."
The legal sense "establish by decision, lay down authoritatively" is recorded from early 15c. The meaning "mark with parallel straight lines" (with or as with the aid of a ruler) is from 1590s. The slang intransitive sense of "dominate all" is by 1975. "Rule Britannia," patriotic song, is from 1740. Related: Ruled; ruling.
BACKWOODSMEN. ... This word is commonly used as a term of reproach (and that, only in a familiar style,) to designate those people, who, being at a distance from the sea and entirely agricultural, are considered as either hostile or indifferent to the interests of the commercial states. [John Pickering, "A Vocabulary, or Collection of Words and Phrases Which Have Been Supposed to be Peculiar to the United States of America," Boston, 1816]
early 15c., "to break off in small pieces" (intransitive, of stone); from Old English forcippian "to pare away by cutting, cut off," verbal form of cipp "small piece of wood" (see chip (n.1)).
Transitive meaning "to cut up, cut or trim into small pieces, diminish by cutting away a little at a time" is from late 15c. Sense of "break off fragments" is 18c. Related: Chipped; chipping. To chip in "contribute" (1861) is American English, perhaps from card-playing; but compare chop in "interrupt by remarking" (1540s). Chipped beef attested from 1826.
"one who or that which dampens," 1748, in the figurative sense, in reference to spirits, enthusiasm, etc., agent noun from damp (v.). In mechanical senses, "device for checking action:" 1783 in reference to a felt-covered piece of wood, etc., which deadens the string after the note is played; 1788 of a chimney, stove, etc., "metal plate in the flue used to control combustion by regulating the draft." Either or both reinforced the figurative senses. The piano damper-pedal (1848) raises the dampers of all the strings so the notes are prolonged and sympathetic vibrations produced.