Etymology
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shufty (n.)
also shufti "a look, a glance," 1943, from Arabic shufti "have you seen?"
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hid (adj.)

early 13c., past tense and alternative past participle of hide (v.1).

How to entangle, trammel up and snare
Your soul in mine, and labyrinth you there
Like the hid scent in an unbudded rose?
Aye, a sweet kiss — you see your mighty woes.
[Keats, from "Lamia," 1820]
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whatchamacallit (n.)
1928, compressed form of phrase "what you may call it." What-do-you-call-it is from 1630s. Earliest recorded variant is what-calle-ye-hym, attested from late 15c. What's-his-name for "unspecified person" is attested from 1690s; variant what's-his-face is first recorded 1967.
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john (n.)

"toilet," 1932, probably from jakes, used for "toilet" since 15c. Meaning "prostitute's customer" is from 1911, probably from the common, and thus anonymous, name by which they identified themselves. Meaning "policeman" is by 1901, from shortening of johndarm (1823), a jocular Englishing of gendarme.

"John Darm! who's he?" "What, don't you know!
In Paris he is all the go;
Like money here,—he's every thing;
A demigod—at least a king!
You cannot fight, you cannot drink,
Nor have a spree, nor hardly think,
For fear you should create a charm,
To conjure up the fiend John Darm!
["John Darm," in "Varieties in Verse," John Ogden, London, 1823]
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haggaday (n.)
mid-14c., "a kind of door latch," and said to be still the name for rings for raising thumb-latches in the north of England. It appears to be what it looks like: what you say when you open the door ("have good day," as in the 1414 record of them as hafgooddays).
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enchilada (n.)

Mexican dish made with a fried tortilla rolled around a filling and served with chili sauce, 1876, American English, from Mexican Spanish enchilada, fem. past participle of enchilar "season with chili," from en- "in" + chile "chili" (see chili).

You never ate enchilada, did you? I hope you never will. An enchilada looks not unlike an ordinary flannel cake rolled on itself and covered with molasses. The ingredients which go to make it up are pepper, lye, hominy, pepper, onions chopped fine, pepper, grated cheese, and pepper. [The Health Reformer, December 1876]
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extremism (n.)

"disposition to go to extremes in doctrine or practice," 1848, from extreme + -ism.

I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice! And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue. [Barry Goldwater (1909-1998), acceptance speech as Republican candidate for President, 1963]
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uppercut (n.)

in pugilism, a close-in strike upward with the fist, 1831, from upper + cut (n.). Perhaps the image is of chopping a tree by making cuts up (as well as down) in the trunk.

It was on a side hill, and I observed a boy, who appeared to be about fifteen years of age, opposite the house felling a large tree; he had cut a few chips from the under side, and was then making the principal incision on the upper. ... I said to the boy, "Well Sir, I see that you make the upper cut." "That is the true cut," said the boy; "for if you will take the axe and try below, you will find that the tree will crowd down upon your chips, and you can't get it down in double the time." [Theodore Sedgwick, "Hints to My Countrymen," 1826]
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brinkmanship (n.)

also brinksmanship (with unetymological -s-), 1956, a construction based on salesmanship, sportsmanship, etc.; from brink (n.). The image of the brink of war dates to at least 1829 (John Quincy Adams).

In the Cold War it was associated with the policies advocated by John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State 1953-1959. The word springs from Dulles' description of his philosophy in a magazine interview [with Time-Life Washington bureau chief James Shepley] in early 1956:

The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art. If you cannot master it, you inevitably get into war. If you try to run away from it, if you are scared to go to the brink, you are lost.

The quote was widely criticized by the Eisenhower Administration's opponents, and the first attested use of brinkmanship seems to have been in such a disparaging context, a few weeks after the magazine interview appeared, by Democratic presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson criticizing Dulles for "boasting of his brinkmanship — the art of bringing us to the edge of the nuclear abyss."

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tu quoque 
Latin, literally "thou also" (or, in modern vernacular, "so are you!"); an argument which consists in retorting accusations.
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