Etymology
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lioness (n.)

"female lion," c. 1300, leoness, from lion + -ess. From late 14c., of persons, "fierce or cruel woman." From 1590s as "woman who is boldly public;" from 1808 as "woman who is a focus of public interest."

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misogyny (n.)

"hatred of women," 1650s, from Modern Latin misogynia, from Greek misogynia, abstract noun from misogynēs "woman-hater," from miso- "hatred" (see miso-) + gynē "woman" (from PIE root *gwen- "woman"). Its opposite is philogyny (1620s).

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misogynist (n.)

"a woman-hater, one who has an aversion to women in general," 1610s, from Greek misogynēs "woman-hater" (see misogyny).

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midwife (n.)

"a woman who assists women in childbirth," c. 1300, literally "woman who is 'with' " (the mother at birth), from Middle English mid "with" (see mid (prep.)) + wif "woman" (see wife). Cognate with German Beifrau.

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gyneco- 

also gynaeco-, before a vowel gynec-, word-forming element meaning "woman, female," from Latinized form of Greek gynaiko-, combining form of gynē "woman, female," from PIE root *gwen- "woman." Also see æ (1).

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femme fatale (n.)

"attractive and dangerous woman," 1895, from French femme fatale, attested by 1844, from French femme "woman," from Latin femina "woman, a female" (see feminine) + fatale (see fatal).

Une femme fatale est une femme qui porte malheur. [Jules Claretie, "La Vie a Paris," 1896]

Earlier, such a woman might be called a Circe.

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gynarchy (n.)

"government by women or a woman," 1570s, from Greek gynē "woman, wife" (from PIE root *gwen- "woman") + -arkhē "rule" (verbal noun of arkhein "to be the first," hence "to rule;" see archon). Synonymous gynaecocracy (from Greek gynaikokratia) and gyneocracy are attested from 1610s; gynocracy is from 1728.

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doula (n.)

"woman trained to assist another woman during childbirth and provide support to the family after the baby is born," by 1972, a coinage in anthropology, from Modern Greek doule, from ancient Greek doule "servant-woman," fem. of doulos "slave, servant," which probably is a word of Pre-Greek origin.

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femme (n.)

French, literally "woman," from Old French feme, from Latin femina "woman, a female," literally "she who suckles," from PIE root *dhe(i)- "to suck." Slang for "young woman" from 1928; meaning "passive and more feminine partner in a lesbian couple" attested by 1961.

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polygyny (n.)

1780, "condition of having many wives, marriage or cohabitation of one man with more than one woman at the same time," from Greek polygynēs "having many wives," from polys "many" (see poly-) + gynē "woman, wife" (from PIE root *gwen- "woman"). Related: Polygynous.

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